Chapter 8 And 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 And 9 Deck (45):
1

The totality of an organisms chemical reactions

Metabolism

2

Breakdown pathways

Catabolic pathways

3

Consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones

Anabolic pathways

4

It is energy that matter possesses because of it location or structure

Potential energy

5

A measure of disorder

Enthropu

6

Is the portion of a systems energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform through the system, as in a living cell

Free energy

7

Net release of free energy

Exergonic reaction

8

Absorbs free energy from its surroundings

Endogonic reaction

9

The recipient of a phosphate group

Phosphorylated

10

A chemical agent that speeds to a reaction without being consumed by the reaction

Catalyst

11

A macromolecule that acts as a catalase

Wnzyme

12

The energy required to contort the reactant molecules so the bonds can break

Activation energy

13

At the summit when the reactants are in an unstable condition

Transition state

14

The reactant an enzyme acts on

Substrate

15

Is typically a poket or groove on the surface of the protein where catalysis occurs

Active site

16

Enzyme changes shape slightly so that the active site fits even more snugly around the substrate

Induced fit

17

Bound tightly to enzymes as permanent residents

Cofactor

18

If cofactor is organic molecules

Coenzymes

19

Reduce the production of enzymes by blocking substrates from entering active site

Competitive inhibitors

20

Do not directly compete with the substrate to bind to the enzyme at the active site

Non competitive inhibitors

21

Is the term used to describe any care in which a proteins function at one site is affective by the binding of a regulatory molecule to a seperate site

Allosteric regulation

22

a metabolic pathway that is switched off by the inhibitory binding of its end product to an enzyme that acts early in the pathway

feedback inhibition

23

mechanism that amplifies the responce of enzymes to substrates

cooperativity

24

molecules aerobic and anarobic processes

cellular respiration

25

election transfers from one reaction to another

redox reaction

26

the loss of electron from one substrate

oxidation

27

the addition of electrons from one substate

reduction

28

the electron donor

reducing agent

29

the electron acceptor

oxidizing agent

30

an electron carrier

NAD+

31

used to break the fall of electrons to oxygen into several energy releasing steps

electron transport chain

32

occurs in the cytosool begins the degredation preocess by breaking glucose into two molecules of a compound called puruvate

glycolsis

33

an enzyme that transfers a phosphate group from ATP to sugar, investing another molecule of ATP in glycolsis

phosphofructokinase (PFK)

34

smaller amount of ATP formed in a few reactions of glycolsis in the citric acid cycle through this mechanism

substrate llevel phosphorylation

35

the degradation process by breaking glucose into two molecules of a compound

pyruvate

36

takes place iin mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotic cells or in the cytosol of prokaryotes it completes the breakdown of glucose bt oxidizing a derivatine of pyruvate to carbon dioxide

citric acid cycle

37

while entering the mitrochondion via active transport pyruvate is the first converted to this compound

acetyl- CoA

38

are most of the remaining electron characters between vbiquinine and oxygen are proteins

cytochrome

39

make ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate

ATP synthase

40

the process in which energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane is used to drive cellular work like synthesis for ATP

chemiosmosis

41

the H+ gradient that results is to as ...

proton motive force

42

pyruvate is converted to etanol in 2 steps

alchol fermentation

43

pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactate as anena product with no release of CO2

lactic acid fermentation

44

can make enough ATP to survive using fermentation or respiration

faculative anaerobe

45

breaks the fatty acid down to 2 carbon fragments which enter the citric acid cycle as acelylcon

beta oxidation