Flashcards in EOC Review Deck (194):
What is the purpose of the cell cycle?
Control cell growth and division
Two reasons why cells divide rather than grow larger are:
1) get nutrients to diffuse in and waste to diffuse out of the cell
2) needs to respond quickly to cells needs
The phases of mitosis in order are
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
The most efficient cells- capable of feeding themselves and removing all their wastes- will have a high______ to _________ ratio.
Surface area; volume
What happens during prophase?
Chromatin condenses into chromosomes; nuclear envelope breaks; centrioles separate forms spindle
What happens during G1 phase?
Grow, new organelles and metabolic processes take place
What happens during metaphase 1 of meiosis?
Homologous chromosome pairs line up
How is mitosis different in plant and animal cells?
Plant make a new cell wall in the middle and animal cells pinch to split cell
How is anaphase 1 of meiosis different then anaphase of mitosis?
Chromosome pairs separate not chromosomes halves
A replicated chromosome is made of two haves called _______, these are connected together by a structure called the ________.
During which phase of mitosis do chromosomes line upon the middle of the cell?
During which phase of mitosis do chromatid halves separate?
During what phase of the cell cycle is DNA replicated?
What happens when a cell reaches a cell cycle checkpoint?
Stop and go signals can regulate the cycle
Mitosis is different from meiosis because:
Produces any cell and makes 2 meiosis produces gametes and creates 4
What signal tells cells to stop growing once they have filled a cut in your skin?
Density dependent signal cells
How is metaphase 1 of meiosis different than metaphase 2 of meiosis?
The chromosomes lining up are attaching to the spindle
Which steps o meiosis lead to cells that contain a random mix of your DNA?
When does Homologus crossover occur
Which types of cells can divide by meiosis?
The purpose of meiosis is to:
Create gametes - cells used for reproduction
During fertilization, a ________ egg an a ________ sperm join to form a ________ zygote.
Diploid, diploid, haploid
A punnett square can be used to:
Show the gene combinations that result from a genetic cross
A different version of a gene is called
Mendel proved that all the traits he studied in pea plants are independent of each other, but Morgan proved thy traits in fruit flies could be linked. Which one if right?
A physical characteristic is known as a:
mendel first crossed true breeding yellow pea and green pea plants; all of the offspromg had yellow peas. from this experiment , mendel deduced the principle of
all of the chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes are called:if a person is h heterozygous, which allele will determine their phenotype:
the scientific study of heredity is called:
cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that isthat is seen equally in both males and females; its mode of inheritance is probably:
iif two planrs that are heteroygous for yellow pea coloe produce offspring, what will the ratio of yellow to green pea plants be in the offspring?
what do you call a trait that is inherited on the x chromosome?
sex linked trait
you want to determine if a yellow pea plant is homozygousor heterozygous for pea color . to do this you cross-fertilize it to a green pea plant ; the resulting offsprinng show a mix of green pea and yellow pea plants. from this you conclude:
two are dominant and both contribute to the phenotype
mendel first crossed true breeding yelloow pea nad green pea plants, and all of the offspring had yellow peas, he then allowed these hybrid yellow pea to self fertilize . the resulting off spring included both yellow and green pea plants. from this experiment Mendel deduced the principle of
an organism that has two different alleles for a particular gene is called
human blood type is determined by 3 alleles:a, b, and o. if a person inheriets both an A and B, both contribute to make the person type AB. This is example of
if a person is a dihhybrid crosshas a genotype BbWw, what are the possible gamates made by this parent:
BW Bw Wb wb
Mendel first crossed true breedimg yellow/ round pea and green/ wrinkled pea plants, and all of the offspriing had yellow/ round peas. he then allowed these hybrid pea plants to self fertilize. the resulting offspring included both yellow/ wrinkled pea plants and green / round pea plants - sypes not seen in the parents. from this experiment Mendel deducted the principle of independent assortment
a cross between a red flowered (RR) and a white flowered (rr) Mirabilis plant produces that all have pink flowers (Rr) this is an example of
when tomas Hunt Morgan produced mutant fruit flies with white eyes, he nooticed that all of the white eyed fflies were males. from this observation Morgan concluded that
the white eyes trait was sex linked
if a person has trisomy-21 then they will have _______ syndrome
when mendel crossed true breeding tall plants with true breeding short plants, all of the offspring were tall because:
the allele for tall plants is dominant
An error that can lead to gametes with too many chromosomes is
why do boys always inherit sex-linked disorders from their mother and not their father
their is no matching genes in the Y chromosome if the male inherent a defective X he will have the disorder.
when do both segregation and independent assortment occur during meiosis?
in a testcross what is the term for an offspring that have a mix of traits from the two parents
what is the only genotyoe that will result from a recessive phenotype?
what is a variation that increases an individuals ability to survive
why do closely related animals have a common pattern of embryotic development?
development is controlled by a common set of Hox genes
what is the ability to survive and reproduce in a specific environment called?
what type of fossil forms when an organism walks through some kind of mud , and the footprints in the mud become fossilized?
what is the term for fossils that document various intermittent stages in the evolution of modern species from organisms that are now extinct?
what is selected by natural selection?
organisms with better fitness
what is required foe evolution to occur by natural selection
64% of the population of Mmartians have a recessive trait called "pizza face" what percentage of the population is heterozgous for the dominant normial face trait?
why are vestigal organs considered to be evidence of evolution??
because they are example of how structures in ancient organisms have been changed into structures found in modern organisms
how many half lives have passed if theirs only 12.5% of radio active sample remaining?
3 half lives
two mice of the same species are colored the same shade of tan. One has the genotype TT and the other has the genotype Tt. since their genotypes are different, their survival rate could be expected to be:
whaile genetic drift is ann example of _____ changes in a gene pool , natural selection is ________ about which organisms survive and which do not.
which type of natural selection can split a population into 2 species?
what is a collection of all the alleles of a population called?
what did Darwin call the process where humans choose to breed those plants and annimals that have variations we find useful?
Darwin suggested that species with low fitness _______, while species with high fitness __________.
die out; reproduce more
If a population on mice havs 15 alleles for brown coak and 35 allels for tan coat color, what is the relative frequency of brown coat alleles?
what must happen in order for one species to evolve into two different species?
Males of one species of firelies light up to attract femals at dusk, while a diffferent species lights up to attract females late at night. this is an example of:
Human babies survive better if they are between 5.5 and 9 lbs at birth, but die more frequently if they are less than 5.5 lbs or more then 9 lbs. this is an example of
eastern and western Meadowlarks do not mate because the males sing different mating songs . this is an example of:
what are some examples of genetic drift?
founder effect and bottle neck effect
in order to have genetic equilibrium, all of the following must be true EXCEPT:
natural selection will occur
GIraffes with longer necks are more successful in gathering food; the fossil record shows that overtim, giraffe necks have gotten longer as a result. this is an example of:
Bononoos and chimpanzees are closely relative ape, but cannot interbred because they cannot cross the congo rive. this is an example of:
mocker swallowtail butterflies that are either deep orange or white survive because they look like poisonous butterflies, but loght colored mocker butterflies are quickly eaten by predators. this is an example of:
why did birds survive the global temperature drop at the end of the Cretaceous period while dinosaurs did not?
they were more adaptable. They were more able to survive changes in climate & food source than other animals.
darwin suggested that one species of finch from south america moved to the galapagos islands where they evolved into different species. this is an example of:
what theroy states that the population remains unchanged for long periods of time, but then change rapidly over short periods of time?
what are the functions of the skeletal system?
support the body, protect the internal organs, help with movement,, store mineral reserves, , red and white blood cells
what is the process of converting cartilage into bone called?
what are the function of the muscular system?
movement, blood flow, breathing, passage of food through digestive system and minor functions
what are the parts of the appendicular skeleton?
cranium, maxilla, mandible, hyoid bone,vertebral colum, clavicle,scapula, sternum, ribs, humerus, pelvis, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, patella, tibia, fibula,tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
what type of joint allows you to rotate in one dimension?
if you starve your body of calcium or dont exersise much, youll weaken your bones and develop:
what is an example of a hinge joinnt?
knee and ulna at the elbow
if you were to cut a bone in half what structures would you see, going from the outside to the inside?
compact bone, spongy bone, bone marrow
what is the scientific name for one of the bones you learned?
what type of muscle is found in the heart?
what type of muscle helps you digest food in your stomach?
what type of muscle do you use to fill in your answers?
why can cardiac muscle cells pull in many directions while skeletal muscles can not?
because skeletal muscles are long tubes whilw cardiac muscle are branced
what type of protein make up the thick filament of a sacromere?
which step in muscle contraction happens after calcium is released into the cell?
myosin head binds to the actin fiber
which step in muscle contraction requires energy from the breakdown of ATP?
myosin head returns to its starting position
in the sacromere, the ________ are connected by the Z-line and the _______ are connected by the M-line.
Actin fibers; myosin fibers
what structure connects a muscle to a bone?
what structure connects a bone to another bone?
what are the parts of the central nervous system?
brain and spinal cord
what is the function of the motor neurons?
transmit commands from CNS to the muscles and glands
what part of the brain is helping you think of the answer to there questions?
what part of the brain coordinates your body movements?
what part of the brain controls your heart beat, breathing, and blood pressure?
in what order does an impulse travel through a neuron?
dendrites, cell body, axon, axon terminals then to muscle cells, gland cells, or other neurons
what is the correct order of neurons involved in a reflex arc.
sensory, spinal cord, motor
how does the myelin sleath help a neuron?
insulates the neuron and speeds up the impulse
in order for a neuron to create a resting potential it must
pump 3 na+ ions out for every2 K+ other neurons that enter cell
what is a junction where a neuron can pass a signal to another cell?
what does a neuron do to start transmitting an impulse?
when chemically gated sodium channels open
what does a neuron release from the axon terminals to transmit a signal to an adjacent cell?
what is the net charge of the inside of a resting neuron?
what does a neuron do to repolarize itself so it can transmit another impulse?
what are the 5 types of pathogens?
bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, and worms
what type of pathogen must invade cells to reproduce?
what are the charactistics of a retrovirus?
a virus that uses RNA instead of DNA to store its genetic material
what part of a bacterium help it move?
which virus growth cycle immediately destroys then host cell and creates more viruses?
what do bacteria have that viruses are missing?
cell membrane, cytoplasm, and flagellum
what part of a virus help it attach and infect a host cell?
what do lytic and lysogenic growth have in common?
they both begin when a virus attaches to the host cell and transfers its DNA or RNA into the host cell
what are the parts of the barrier defense?
skin, mucus, saliva, sweat, tears, and stomach acid
why cant viruses be killed with antibiotics??
which of these are an advantage of lysogenic growth?
because it is invisible to the immune system and can be carried into new environments
during which phase of the immune response are healthy cells killed recklessly in order to stop an
what is a substance that triggers an immune responce?
both macrophages and dendritic cells can:
collect antigens, display them, travel to the lympthnode and activate killer T cells
what do helper T-cells do?
activate either killer T-cells or B-cells depending on type of immune response
what can lead to active immunity?
how does the humoral response kill pathogens?
what type of cells kills ONLY infected cells during the specific immune response?
when B-cells recognize antigens, what do they do?
what cell type is the first to be activated in a lympth node?
what is the first step of the specific immune response?
antigen presenting cells
which type of specific immune responce would be best for for killing a pathogen found swimming in the blood like the parasites that cause african sleeping sickness.
how does a APC know which specific killer t cell to activate?
because it uses the antigens it displays and tries to find a match
what parts of an antibody bind to the antigen?
variable regions of the heavy and light chain
which cells make antibodies?
what method of killing requires antibodies to have TWO antigen binding sites
binding to and cross linking pathogens into clumps to help phagocyte sengulf them
how does HIV destory the entire specific immune responce?
what is the purpose of a vaccine?
a preparation of weakened or viral proteins that stimulate the immune system?
what type of cells remain in your body (after infection) to make you immune for the rest of your life?
viruses, some bacteria, and some protists hide inside of human cells, amking to hard for antibodies to bind to them; which type of specific immune response would be best for killing these pathogens?
killer t cells
some pathogens (such as influenza B) have evolved to regularly change the antigens on their outer surface; what level of the immune system would that defeat?
many bacteria, protists, fungi, and worms have heack shock genes which allows then to grow in higher than normal temperatures' what level of the immune response would that defeat?
how is the secondary response better then the primary response?
because it specifically kills infected cells while primary kills everything.
the respiratory system supplies _________, and removes __________ from the blood
oxygen, carbon dioxide
when you breath in your ________, raises and your ______ lowers
diaphragm, and ribs
what type of blood vessels surrounds the alveioli??
what is the role of nose hair and mucus in the respiratory system?
to filter the air
how does gas exchange occur in the lungs?
oxygen diffuses from the air into red blood cells where it is bound by hemoglobin
what keeps your trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles from collapsing when youu inhale?
connective tissue rings
how does smoking affect your lungs?
it causes your cilia to stop beating
which feature gound in all the respiratory systems help them to work more efficiently?
high surface area and is moist
As air enters your body and it travels your ________ and then though your __________ into your lung.
trachea; bronchi and bronchicles
which loop of the circulatory system provides oxygen to the tissues and collects carbon dioxide from them?
what does blood pass through after it leaves the right ventricle?
as blood flows through the heart it moves from left atrium to the
whiich part of the blood carries sugar, salts, and urea?
why can nutrients and wastes easily enter the blood when it is traveling through capillaries?
because they are thin
which type of blood vessel carries blood TO the heart?
when you feel your pulse in your wrist or throat, what are you feeling as it expands and contracts?
what problems would occur if there was a hole in the wall between the left ventricle and right ventricle?
the high and low oxygen will mix and pump some blood in to the body that is low in oxygen
what is the function of the valves found in veins and between the chanbers of the heart?
to keep blood flowing in the right direction
which part of your blood caries oxygen
red blood cells
a person who cannot clot their blood is probably missing:
what are the functions of the endocrine system?
maintain homeostasis, start and control major changes in the body
why do endocrine hormones have the potential to affect many organs in the body?
liver cells resond to the glucagon why spleen cells do not. this is because liver cells have:
what do calcitonin and parathyoid homone control?
which type of hormone can pass strait throough the cell membrane and into the cell?
youve just run a mile around the track and are feeling dehydrated and thirsty.what hormone are you making?
which of the following would not be true for someone who hadhyperthyoidism- they make too much tyroxine?
have high amount of oxygen and cellular metabolism
you just had a breakfast of chocolate- froosted sugar bombs, and are now absorbing a lot of sugar into your blood; which of these hormones are being released?
identify two pairs of antagonistic hormomes?
insulin and cotonin
which of the following is true for booth steriod and non steriod hormones?
bind to hoormone receptor
you just jumped off of a bridge with a masive bungee cord attached to your ankles, and are currently screaming your head off. which hormones is/ are probably being released into your blood?
which nutrients do NOT need to be digested?
water minerals and vitamins
what type of digestion includes the chewing of food?
what enzyme break polysaccharides into disaccharides in the mouth?
where does the food go after passing through the esophagus?
to the stomach
what enzyme start the digestion of proteins in the stomach?
how does bile help you digest food?
breaks down fats and imulifies them
which enzymes are made by the pancreas?
lipase, pancreatic amaylase, tryspin and chymotyspin
what kinds of digestion can the stomach do?
chemical and mechanical
which enzymes break disaccharides into monosaccharides?
maltase, lactase, sucrase
bile is made in the ______ and stored in the ________
liver; gall bladder
what does the enzyme peptidase digest?
peptides into amino acids
where are most nutrients absorbed into the blood stream?
what do you get if you large intestine does not work correctly?
what is the correct order of digesting proteins?
pepsin or tryspin and chymotrysin then peptidase
what type of enzyme cuts DNA at a specific sequence?
what a restriction enzyme cuts DNA and the ends of DNA strands are un even and the ends are called:
one function of gel electrophoresis is to:
separate DNA by size
a Dna molecule produced by combining DNA from different sources is knoe as
A recombinant plasmid gets inside a bacterial cell by
a process called tranformation
suppose a bacterial culture were mixed with recombinant plasmids conating a gene for resistance to ampicillin. the bacterial culture was trated with ampicillin. what will happen?
have plasmid live do not have plasmid die (antibiotic selection)