EOC Review Flashcards Preview

Biology > EOC Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in EOC Review Deck (194):
1

What is the purpose of the cell cycle?

Control cell growth and division

2

Two reasons why cells divide rather than grow larger are:

1) get nutrients to diffuse in and waste to diffuse out of the cell
2) needs to respond quickly to cells needs

3

The phases of mitosis in order are

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

4

The most efficient cells- capable of feeding themselves and removing all their wastes- will have a high______ to _________ ratio.

Surface area; volume

5

What happens during prophase?

Chromatin condenses into chromosomes; nuclear envelope breaks; centrioles separate forms spindle

6

What happens during G1 phase?

Grow, new organelles and metabolic processes take place

7

What happens during metaphase 1 of meiosis?

Homologous chromosome pairs line up

8

How is mitosis different in plant and animal cells?

Plant make a new cell wall in the middle and animal cells pinch to split cell

9

How is anaphase 1 of meiosis different then anaphase of mitosis?

Chromosome pairs separate not chromosomes halves

10

A replicated chromosome is made of two haves called _______, these are connected together by a structure called the ________.

Chromatids, centromere

11

During which phase of mitosis do chromosomes line upon the middle of the cell?

Metaphase

12

During which phase of mitosis do chromatid halves separate?

Anaphase

13

During what phase of the cell cycle is DNA replicated?

S phase

14

What happens when a cell reaches a cell cycle checkpoint?

Stop and go signals can regulate the cycle

15

Mitosis is different from meiosis because:

Produces any cell and makes 2 meiosis produces gametes and creates 4

16

What signal tells cells to stop growing once they have filled a cut in your skin?

Density dependent signal cells

17

How is metaphase 1 of meiosis different than metaphase 2 of meiosis?

The chromosomes lining up are attaching to the spindle

18

Which steps o meiosis lead to cells that contain a random mix of your DNA?

Homologous crossover

19

When does Homologus crossover occur

During prophase

20

Which types of cells can divide by meiosis?

Germ cellz

21

The purpose of meiosis is to:

Create gametes - cells used for reproduction

22

During fertilization, a ________ egg an a ________ sperm join to form a ________ zygote.

Diploid, diploid, haploid

23

A punnett square can be used to:

Show the gene combinations that result from a genetic cross

24

A different version of a gene is called

Allele

25

Mendel proved that all the traits he studied in pea plants are independent of each other, but Morgan proved thy traits in fruit flies could be linked. Which one if right?

Both

26

A physical characteristic is known as a:

Phenotype

27

mendel first crossed true breeding yellow pea and green pea plants; all of the offspromg had yellow peas. from this experiment , mendel deduced the principle of

complete dominace

28

all of the chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes are called:if a person is h heterozygous, which allele will determine their phenotype:

autosomal chromosomes

29

the scientific study of heredity is called:

genetics

30

cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that isthat is seen equally in both males and females; its mode of inheritance is probably:

autosomal

31

iif two planrs that are heteroygous for yellow pea coloe produce offspring, what will the ratio of yellow to green pea plants be in the offspring?

3:1

32

what do you call a trait that is inherited on the x chromosome?

sex linked trait

33

you want to determine if a yellow pea plant is homozygousor heterozygous for pea color . to do this you cross-fertilize it to a green pea plant ; the resulting offsprinng show a mix of green pea and yellow pea plants. from this you conclude:

two are dominant and both contribute to the phenotype

34

mendel first crossed true breeding yelloow pea nad green pea plants, and all of the offspring had yellow peas, he then allowed these hybrid yellow pea to self fertilize . the resulting off spring included both yellow and green pea plants. from this experiment Mendel deduced the principle of

segregation.

35

an organism that has two different alleles for a particular gene is called

heterozygous

36

human blood type is determined by 3 alleles:a, b, and o. if a person inheriets both an A and B, both contribute to make the person type AB. This is example of

Co-dominance

37

if a person is a dihhybrid crosshas a genotype BbWw, what are the possible gamates made by this parent:

BW Bw Wb wb

38

Mendel first crossed true breedimg yellow/ round pea and green/ wrinkled pea plants, and all of the offspriing had yellow/ round peas. he then allowed these hybrid pea plants to self fertilize. the resulting offspring included both yellow/ wrinkled pea plants and green / round pea plants - sypes not seen in the parents. from this experiment Mendel deducted the principle of independent assortment

independent assortment.

39

a cross between a red flowered (RR) and a white flowered (rr) Mirabilis plant produces that all have pink flowers (Rr) this is an example of

incomplete dominance

40

when tomas Hunt Morgan produced mutant fruit flies with white eyes, he nooticed that all of the white eyed fflies were males. from this observation Morgan concluded that

the white eyes trait was sex linked

41

if a person has trisomy-21 then they will have _______ syndrome

down

42

when mendel crossed true breeding tall plants with true breeding short plants, all of the offspring were tall because:

the allele for tall plants is dominant

43

An error that can lead to gametes with too many chromosomes is

Non disjunction

44

why do boys always inherit sex-linked disorders from their mother and not their father

their is no matching genes in the Y chromosome if the male inherent a defective X he will have the disorder.

45

when do both segregation and independent assortment occur during meiosis?

anaphase 2

46

in a testcross what is the term for an offspring that have a mix of traits from the two parents

recombinant

47

what is the only genotyoe that will result from a recessive phenotype?

homozygous recessive

48

what is a variation that increases an individuals ability to survive

adaptation

49

why do closely related animals have a common pattern of embryotic development?

development is controlled by a common set of Hox genes

50

what is the ability to survive and reproduce in a specific environment called?

fitness

51

what type of fossil forms when an organism walks through some kind of mud , and the footprints in the mud become fossilized?

Trace fossil

52

what is the term for fossils that document various intermittent stages in the evolution of modern species from organisms that are now extinct?

traditional fossils

53

what is selected by natural selection?

organisms with better fitness

54

what is required foe evolution to occur by natural selection

???????????

55

64% of the population of Mmartians have a recessive trait called "pizza face" what percentage of the population is heterozgous for the dominant normial face trait?

32%

56

why are vestigal organs considered to be evidence of evolution??

because they are example of how structures in ancient organisms have been changed into structures found in modern organisms

57

how many half lives have passed if theirs only 12.5% of radio active sample remaining?

3 half lives

58

two mice of the same species are colored the same shade of tan. One has the genotype TT and the other has the genotype Tt. since their genotypes are different, their survival rate could be expected to be:

?????????

59

whaile genetic drift is ann example of _____ changes in a gene pool , natural selection is ________ about which organisms survive and which do not.

Random; specific

60

which type of natural selection can split a population into 2 species?

disruptive selection

61

what is a collection of all the alleles of a population called?

gene pool

62

what did Darwin call the process where humans choose to breed those plants and annimals that have variations we find useful?

artificial selection

63

Darwin suggested that species with low fitness _______, while species with high fitness __________.

die out; reproduce more

64

If a population on mice havs 15 alleles for brown coak and 35 allels for tan coat color, what is the relative frequency of brown coat alleles?

30%

65

what must happen in order for one species to evolve into two different species?

reproductive isolation

66

Males of one species of firelies light up to attract femals at dusk, while a diffferent species lights up to attract females late at night. this is an example of:

temporal

67

Human babies survive better if they are between 5.5 and 9 lbs at birth, but die more frequently if they are less than 5.5 lbs or more then 9 lbs. this is an example of

stabilizing selection

68

eastern and western Meadowlarks do not mate because the males sing different mating songs . this is an example of:

behavioral isolation

69

what are some examples of genetic drift?

founder effect and bottle neck effect

70

in order to have genetic equilibrium, all of the following must be true EXCEPT:

natural selection will occur

71

GIraffes with longer necks are more successful in gathering food; the fossil record shows that overtim, giraffe necks have gotten longer as a result. this is an example of:

directional selection

72

Bononoos and chimpanzees are closely relative ape, but cannot interbred because they cannot cross the congo rive. this is an example of:

geographic isolation

73

mocker swallowtail butterflies that are either deep orange or white survive because they look like poisonous butterflies, but loght colored mocker butterflies are quickly eaten by predators. this is an example of:

natural selection

74

why did birds survive the global temperature drop at the end of the Cretaceous period while dinosaurs did not?

they were more adaptable. They were more able to survive changes in climate & food source than other animals.

75

darwin suggested that one species of finch from south america moved to the galapagos islands where they evolved into different species. this is an example of:

adaptive radiation

76

what theroy states that the population remains unchanged for long periods of time, but then change rapidly over short periods of time?

punctuated equilibrium

77

what are the functions of the skeletal system?

support the body, protect the internal organs, help with movement,, store mineral reserves, , red and white blood cells

78

what is the process of converting cartilage into bone called?

ossification

79

what are the function of the muscular system?

movement, blood flow, breathing, passage of food through digestive system and minor functions

80

what are the parts of the appendicular skeleton?

cranium, maxilla, mandible, hyoid bone,vertebral colum, clavicle,scapula, sternum, ribs, humerus, pelvis, radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, femur, patella, tibia, fibula,tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges

81

what type of joint allows you to rotate in one dimension?

pivot joint

82

if you starve your body of calcium or dont exersise much, youll weaken your bones and develop:

osteoporosis

83

what is an example of a hinge joinnt?

knee and ulna at the elbow

84

if you were to cut a bone in half what structures would you see, going from the outside to the inside?

compact bone, spongy bone, bone marrow

85

what is the scientific name for one of the bones you learned?

phalanges

86

what type of muscle is found in the heart?

cardiac muscle

87

what type of muscle helps you digest food in your stomach?

smooth muscle

88

what type of muscle do you use to fill in your answers?

skeletal muscle

89

why can cardiac muscle cells pull in many directions while skeletal muscles can not?

because skeletal muscles are long tubes whilw cardiac muscle are branced

90

what type of protein make up the thick filament of a sacromere?

myosin

91

which step in muscle contraction happens after calcium is released into the cell?

myosin head binds to the actin fiber

92

which step in muscle contraction requires energy from the breakdown of ATP?

myosin head returns to its starting position

93

in the sacromere, the ________ are connected by the Z-line and the _______ are connected by the M-line.

Actin fibers; myosin fibers

94

what structure connects a muscle to a bone?

tendon

95

what structure connects a bone to another bone?

ligaments

96

what are the parts of the central nervous system?

brain and spinal cord

97

what is the function of the motor neurons?

transmit commands from CNS to the muscles and glands

98

what part of the brain is helping you think of the answer to there questions?

cerebellum

99

what part of the brain coordinates your body movements?

cerebellum

100

what part of the brain controls your heart beat, breathing, and blood pressure?

brain stem

101

in what order does an impulse travel through a neuron?

dendrites, cell body, axon, axon terminals then to muscle cells, gland cells, or other neurons

102

what is the correct order of neurons involved in a reflex arc.

sensory, spinal cord, motor

103

how does the myelin sleath help a neuron?

insulates the neuron and speeds up the impulse

104

in order for a neuron to create a resting potential it must

pump 3 na+ ions out for every2 K+ other neurons that enter cell

105

what is a junction where a neuron can pass a signal to another cell?

axon terminals

106

what does a neuron do to start transmitting an impulse?

when chemically gated sodium channels open

107

what does a neuron release from the axon terminals to transmit a signal to an adjacent cell?

??????

108

what is the net charge of the inside of a resting neuron?

????????

109

what does a neuron do to repolarize itself so it can transmit another impulse?

???????

110

what are the 5 types of pathogens?

bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, and worms

111

what type of pathogen must invade cells to reproduce?

viruses

112

what are the charactistics of a retrovirus?

a virus that uses RNA instead of DNA to store its genetic material

113

what part of a bacterium help it move?

flagellum

114

which virus growth cycle immediately destroys then host cell and creates more viruses?

Lytic growth

115

what do bacteria have that viruses are missing?

cell membrane, cytoplasm, and flagellum

116

what part of a virus help it attach and infect a host cell?

capsid

117

what do lytic and lysogenic growth have in common?

they both begin when a virus attaches to the host cell and transfers its DNA or RNA into the host cell

118

what are the parts of the barrier defense?

skin, mucus, saliva, sweat, tears, and stomach acid

119

why cant viruses be killed with antibiotics??

??????????

120

which of these are an advantage of lysogenic growth?

because it is invisible to the immune system and can be carried into new environments

121

during which phase of the immune response are healthy cells killed recklessly in order to stop an

Inflammatory response

122

what is a substance that triggers an immune responce?

antigen

123

both macrophages and dendritic cells can:

collect antigens, display them, travel to the lympthnode and activate killer T cells

124

what do helper T-cells do?

activate either killer T-cells or B-cells depending on type of immune response

125

what can lead to active immunity?

?????????????????

126

how does the humoral response kill pathogens?

??????????????????

127

what type of cells kills ONLY infected cells during the specific immune response?

antibodies

128

when B-cells recognize antigens, what do they do?

make antibodies

129

what cell type is the first to be activated in a lympth node?

killer T-cells

130

what is the first step of the specific immune response?

antigen presenting cells

131

which type of specific immune responce would be best for for killing a pathogen found swimming in the blood like the parasites that cause african sleeping sickness.

killer T-cells

132

how does a APC know which specific killer t cell to activate?

because it uses the antigens it displays and tries to find a match

133

what parts of an antibody bind to the antigen?

variable regions of the heavy and light chain

134

which cells make antibodies?

b- cells

135

what method of killing requires antibodies to have TWO antigen binding sites

binding to and cross linking pathogens into clumps to help phagocyte sengulf them

136

how does HIV destory the entire specific immune responce?

?????

137

what is the purpose of a vaccine?

a preparation of weakened or viral proteins that stimulate the immune system?

138

what type of cells remain in your body (after infection) to make you immune for the rest of your life?

memory cells

139

viruses, some bacteria, and some protists hide inside of human cells, amking to hard for antibodies to bind to them; which type of specific immune response would be best for killing these pathogens?

killer t cells

140

some pathogens (such as influenza B) have evolved to regularly change the antigens on their outer surface; what level of the immune system would that defeat?

memory cells

141

many bacteria, protists, fungi, and worms have heack shock genes which allows then to grow in higher than normal temperatures' what level of the immune response would that defeat?

interleukins

142

how is the secondary response better then the primary response?

because it specifically kills infected cells while primary kills everything.

143

the respiratory system supplies _________, and removes __________ from the blood

oxygen, carbon dioxide

144

when you breath in your ________, raises and your ______ lowers

diaphragm, and ribs

145

what type of blood vessels surrounds the alveioli??

?????????

146

what is the role of nose hair and mucus in the respiratory system?

to filter the air

147

how does gas exchange occur in the lungs?

oxygen diffuses from the air into red blood cells where it is bound by hemoglobin

148

what keeps your trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles from collapsing when youu inhale?

connective tissue rings

149

how does smoking affect your lungs?

it causes your cilia to stop beating

150

which feature gound in all the respiratory systems help them to work more efficiently?

high surface area and is moist

151

As air enters your body and it travels your ________ and then though your __________ into your lung.

trachea; bronchi and bronchicles

152

which loop of the circulatory system provides oxygen to the tissues and collects carbon dioxide from them?

plumonary circulation

153

what does blood pass through after it leaves the right ventricle?

pulmonary artery

154

as blood flows through the heart it moves from left atrium to the

left ventricle

155

whiich part of the blood carries sugar, salts, and urea?

plasma

156

why can nutrients and wastes easily enter the blood when it is traveling through capillaries?

because they are thin

157

which type of blood vessel carries blood TO the heart?

veins

158

when you feel your pulse in your wrist or throat, what are you feeling as it expands and contracts?

arteries

159

what problems would occur if there was a hole in the wall between the left ventricle and right ventricle?

the high and low oxygen will mix and pump some blood in to the body that is low in oxygen

160

what is the function of the valves found in veins and between the chanbers of the heart?

to keep blood flowing in the right direction

161

which part of your blood caries oxygen

red blood cells

162

a person who cannot clot their blood is probably missing:

platelets

163

what are the functions of the endocrine system?

maintain homeostasis, start and control major changes in the body

164

why do endocrine hormones have the potential to affect many organs in the body?

???????????????????????

165

liver cells resond to the glucagon why spleen cells do not. this is because liver cells have:

??????????????????????

166

what do calcitonin and parathyoid homone control?

calcium levels

167

which type of hormone can pass strait throough the cell membrane and into the cell?

steriod

168

youve just run a mile around the track and are feeling dehydrated and thirsty.what hormone are you making?

antidiuretic hormone

169

which of the following would not be true for someone who hadhyperthyoidism- they make too much tyroxine?

have high amount of oxygen and cellular metabolism

170

you just had a breakfast of chocolate- froosted sugar bombs, and are now absorbing a lot of sugar into your blood; which of these hormones are being released?

insulin

171

identify two pairs of antagonistic hormomes?

insulin and cotonin

172

which of the following is true for booth steriod and non steriod hormones?

bind to hoormone receptor

173

you just jumped off of a bridge with a masive bungee cord attached to your ankles, and are currently screaming your head off. which hormones is/ are probably being released into your blood?

epinephrine norepinphrine

174

which nutrients do NOT need to be digested?

water minerals and vitamins

175

what type of digestion includes the chewing of food?

mechanical digestion

176

what enzyme break polysaccharides into disaccharides in the mouth?

salivary amaylase

177

where does the food go after passing through the esophagus?

to the stomach

178

what enzyme start the digestion of proteins in the stomach?

pepsin

179

how does bile help you digest food?

breaks down fats and imulifies them

180

which enzymes are made by the pancreas?

lipase, pancreatic amaylase, tryspin and chymotyspin

181

what kinds of digestion can the stomach do?

chemical and mechanical

182

which enzymes break disaccharides into monosaccharides?

maltase, lactase, sucrase

183

bile is made in the ______ and stored in the ________

liver; gall bladder

184

what does the enzyme peptidase digest?

peptides into amino acids

185

where are most nutrients absorbed into the blood stream?

small intestine

186

what do you get if you large intestine does not work correctly?

didiaarhia

187

what is the correct order of digesting proteins?

pepsin or tryspin and chymotrysin then peptidase

188

what type of enzyme cuts DNA at a specific sequence?

restriction endonuclease

189

what a restriction enzyme cuts DNA and the ends of DNA strands are un even and the ends are called:

sticky ends

190

one function of gel electrophoresis is to:

separate DNA by size

191

a Dna molecule produced by combining DNA from different sources is knoe as

recombinant DNA

192

A recombinant plasmid gets inside a bacterial cell by

a process called tranformation

193

suppose a bacterial culture were mixed with recombinant plasmids conating a gene for resistance to ampicillin. the bacterial culture was trated with ampicillin. what will happen?

have plasmid live do not have plasmid die (antibiotic selection)

194

what is the fist step in clooning the human insulin gene into bacteria?

digest genes with restriction enzymes