Occurs when the injury of an individual is secondary to the acquisition of some other external goal of the offender.
External goal may be money, status, security, or material goods
Reactive violence (or expressive violence)
Refers to physical violence caused by a hostile and angry reaction to a perceived threat or dangerous situation.
The impulsive and unthoughtful response to a provocation (action or speech that makes someone angry)
Example of reactive violence
An angry person who “flies off the handle” and shoots a friend over a petty argument represents an obvious example.
Examples of instrumental violence
Shooting a police officer in the course of a bank robbery, stabbing a homeowner during a burglary, and strangling a rape victim
What has research supported about the effects of media violence?
Media violence viewing is one factor contributing to the development of aggression and violence
Viewing a steady diet of violence has the following negative effects:
Increases viewer’s fear of becoming a victim, with a corresponding increase in self-protective behaviors and increased distrust of others.
Desensitizes the viewer to violence
- Viewers often become less sensitive to the pain and suffering of others
Encourages some individuals to become more involved in violent actions
Demonstrates how desired goods and services can be obtained through the use of aggression and violence
Sexual violence in X- and R-rated films has been shown to increase sexual aggression in some males
Long term effects of media on aggressive behavior or violence
Long-term effects occur as a result of learning and storing violent and aggressive material in the cognitive system that eventually “crystallizes” and is difficult to change as the child gets older.
The process by which individuals learn patterns of behavior by observing another person performing the action.
Children are especially prone to doing this
- Observation of aggressive behaviors increases children’s likelihood of behaving that way
With frequent exposure to aggressive behaviors children develop
Beliefs (schemas) that
- The world is basically a hostile place
- Aggression is an acceptable social behavior
- The best way to solve conflicts and to get things is to be aggressive
What type of violent media is the most damaging to children?
Violent media that portray an admired perpetrator as successful through the use of violence appear to have a greater impact on the child’s observational learning of aggression and violence over the long haul
What have researchers found out about video games and violence?
Researchers have not linked the playing of violent video games to acts of violence
What is the impact of violent video games?
Exposure to violent video games was associated with increased aggressive behavior, cognitions, affect, desensitization, and decreased empathy.
Incidents in which an individual (or individuals) kill a number of people (usually a minimum of three) over time.
The time interval may be days or weeks but is more likely months or even years
- Sometimes referred to as the “cooling-off period”
Refers to the killing of three or more individuals without a cooling-off period, usually at two or three different locations.
Involves the killing of three or more persons at a single location with no cooling-off period between the killings.
The two types of mass murder
Classic: school shootings, Las Vegas mass shooting, etc.
Family: at least three family members are killed by another immediate family member or relative
One trait that separates serial killers from the norm
Exceptional interpersonal skill in their presentation of self
- Ability to charm and fool others elevates them beyond suspicion and make them difficult to catch
Are serial killers mentally disordered?
It is a mistake to assume that serial murderers are seriously mentally disordered
Their thoughts patterns may be unaccepted by society when it comes to sensitivity and concern for other human beings, indicating psychopathy, but a majority of serial killers do not display behaviors that qualify for a diagnosis.
Motives of many serial killers
Seem to be based on psychological rewards of control, domination, media attention, and excitement rather than material gain
Refers to a particular system for classifying personality or behavior patterns
Usually used to classify a wide assortment of behaviors into a more manageable set of brief descriptions
Serial killer driven by delusions or hallucinations that compel the person to kill a particular group of individuals.
May be psychotic or seriously mentally ill
Serial killer who believes that there is a particular group of people who are considered undesirable and who must be destroyed or eliminated.
Not mentally ill
Serial killer who strives for pleasure and thrill-seeking. To this killer, people are simply objects to use for one’s own enjoyment. The hedonistic type is divided into lust, thrill, and creature comfort killers.
Type of serial murderer who obtains satisfaction from the absolute life-or-death control they have over the victim.
Sexual components may or may not be present
Reasons for the significant increase in public mass shootings in recent years
There is an increase in desires for fame, attention, or infamy among today’s public mass shooters
The increase in the number of high-profile public mass shooters since the mid-1960s has played a significant role in the plans of the subsequent attackers
- Influenced by previous mass shootings
Substantial increase in the availability of semi automatic and assault weapons has occurred in recent years
- Public mass shootings with these weapons kill and injure more victims
Are public mass shooters mentally ill?
Diagnosis of a mental illness is not a very specific predictor of violence of any type
Most public mass shooters do not have criminal records or any history of psychiatric hospitalizations