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George Washington's Presidency

First president-unanimously elected
Federalist
Two terms
Set precedents, foreign policy
Proclamation of Neutrality
Farewell Address (no political parties and foreign relations-stay away)

1

Bill of Rights

Anti federalist wanted with constitution, first 10 amendments, freedom and civil liberties, proposed since anti fed were worried they wouldn't be protected by constitution

2

Hamilton's Economic Plan

Tried to stable American finances,
1) assumption of state debts
2) creation of national bank
3) promotion of manufacturing industry
Federalist supported and republicans against - too British and favored elites and rich

3

First Bank of US

Hamilton believed a national bank was necessary to stabilize and improve the nation's credit, and to improve handling of the financial business of the United States government under constitution, opposition from Jefferson and Madison (elites)

4

Loose vs. Strict Interpretation

Strict: Thomas Jefferson, if not worded in constitution don't do (LI purchase)
Loose: Hamilton, used elastic clause (ex:bank)

5

Whiskey Rebellion

New taxes to help payoff war debts
Tax on south whiskey drinkers - angry and couldn't afford, gov stopped rebellion (first time to see how well gov could enforce laws) Washington proved gov could handle it (sent in troops)
Led men to pa

6

First American Political Parties

Federalists: more nat power, elites, loose interpretation, bank=constitutional, pro British, favored tariffs
Democratic Republicans: shared power, poor farmers, fear of powerful gov, strict, pro French, no bank

7

Washington's Neutrality Proclamation

US stays out of all European conflicts, during French Revolution when America was split

8

Jay's Treaty

John Jay, said Britain was to pay for American seized ships, Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before revolution and Britain agreed to remove troops from Ohio valley

9

Republican Motherhood

Idea that a women's greatest duty is to raise many patriotic Americans, them being educated means more people will

10

Haitian Revolution

Uprising of slaves in Haiti, napoleons dream of French empire ended because of this,

11

John Adam's Presidency

XYZ Affair, Alien and Sedition Acts, virginia and Kentucky resolutions, prevented war with France after xyz affair and ruined Feds after alien and sedition acts, midnight judges (fed control in congress)

12

XYZ Affair

1797: French officials (agents named XYZ) wanted a bribe from the us diplomats, led to alien and sedition acts

13

Quasi War

Undeclared war fought overseas between US, Britain and France

14

Alien and Sedition Acts

Four laws by the us signed by Adams that said nobody could criticize government and made naturalization take longer, harder for aliens

15

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Resolutions passed by Madison and Jefferson to attack alien and sedition acts, passed in Virginia and Kentucky, thought it was unconstitutional, claimed states could nullify

16

Election of 1800

Winner was Thomas Jefferson, peaceful transfer of power between the two political parties
(fed->democrat republicans) opponent was John Adams (no second term)

17

Jefferson's Presidency

Louisiana Purchase, simple, didn't have huge parties like federalist, kept hamilton's framework except high taxes, reduced military, embargo act, macon's bill no 2, non intercourse act, Chesapeake incident (it didn't allow British to come on and look for deserters so they fired)

18

Marbury vs. Madison

Established judicial review,

19

Louisiana Purchase

Purchased from France, originally just to buy New Orleans but Napoleon gave all for cheap(Haitian revolution-no French empire), doubled size, controversial since strict interpretation, tension with Britain, helped pay off war debt of France

20

Lewis and Clark

Sent to explore the new land, created good relations with the Indians and discovered flowers and nature ect...

21

Embargo Act of 1807

America can't trade with anyone in the world, back fired and hurt our economy (Jefferson), difficult to enforce and replaced by non intercourse act, goal was to make Britain and France feel sorry by hurting them but instead it hurt us

22

James Madison

Chartered Second Bank of US, treaty of Ghent, Macon's bill no 2, battle of New Orleans and Hartford convention (end of federalists)

23

Macon's Bill No. 2

Reopened trade with France and Britain but said if they impressed our ships we would end trade with them again

24

War of 1812

Causes: French and British impressment of American ships, us thought British were helping natives and still with colonies, embargo act, trade conflict
Main Events: war hawks in congress convince Madison to declare war, battle of Lake Erie (British naval attack-perry), burning of Washington then Baltimore but we prevented, battle of New Orleans
Effects: status quo antebellum, nationalism (gained respect around world), better military, manufacturing, Hartford convention and treaty of Ghent, natives lose more land

25

Tecumseh and the Prophet

Believed natives shouldn't give up land to Americans, began to create a native confederacy, Battle of tippecanoe (prophet was defeated by Harrison), sided with British during war of 1812

26

Battle of New Orleans

After treaty was signed, he defeated British that invaded New Orleans, protecting the Mississippi River, Jackson emerges out as a new American hero,

27

Treaty of Ghent

Ended war of 1812, status quo antebellum, more nationalism

28

Hartford Convention

End of federalists, looked like complainers, originally happened because they wanted to discuss ways to get money lost through embargo act

29

Rise of American Nationalism

Gained respect and become more independent, inspired nationalism and more unity

30

Doctrine of feme covert

Married women who was owned by husband, he had the right to all her land and owned everything if hers

31

Rush Bagot Treaty

Agreement between Britain and America to maintain armed fleets in the Great Lakes

32

Adams-Onis Treaty

US purchased Florida from Spain and gained assurances that Spain would abandon claims on Oregon territory, defined us and Mexico border

33

Tariff of 1816

20% tax on all imported goods but many opposed, passed by Monroe to protect industry

34

Clay's American System

1) recharter of bank
2) high protective tariffs
3) internal improvements
To encourage manufacturing and federal spending for internal improvements

35

Era of Good Feelings

Only one political party, No federalists in election only democratic republicans

36

Missouri Compromise

Missouri was to be a slave state and admitted Maine as a free state to maintain balance in senate, no slavery above 36'30 line besides Missouri
Tallmadge amendment: stop slave import, slaves free when they reach an age

37

John Marshall

Federalist, more for national power and settled many cases, favored national power so he would rule in favor if government, Appointed by John Adams

38

Monroe Doctrine

Warned European powers to stay out of Western Hemisphere, wouldn't allow them to, feared international influence,

39

Election of 1824

Jackson and John Quincy Adams, Jackson won popular but didn't win majority electoral votes so went to house, Henry clay conspiracy and he voted Adams

40

Corrupt Bargain

Election with Jackson and Quincy Adams where he won and jacksonians thought it was corrupt bargain

41

Jackson's Pesidency

For the common man, not afraid to use military power, Indian removal act, his supporters were the democrats

42

Jacksonian Democracy

Loyalists in congress who supported him, didn't believe in federal spending for internal improvements, strong executive power (veto)

43

Spoils System

Appointing loyalists to congress, Jackson used and appointed people who supported him during the election

44

Panic of 1819

Caused by second bank, forced to get payment in hard coin, but banks didn't have much

45

Tariff of 1828, South Carolina Exposition (tariff of abominations)

Put a high tariff on imports for goods bought by south, John Calhoun wrote exposition recommending nullification, said unconstitutional and would hurt trade

46

Nullification Crisis

Jackson ignored exposition, Calhoun resigned, SC declared it null and Jackson sent in military force to threaten them (force bill), compromise by Henry clay to slowly reduce tariff and nullies rescind

47

John C. Calhoun

Wrote sc exposition, was Jackson's vp but resigned

48

Indian Removal Act

By Jackson, said resettlement of natives to west of Mississippi, sent federal troops to remove them, said it was good for preservation of their culture

49

Worcester vs Georgia

Ruled in favor of Cherokee, Jackson ignored ruling, Georgia could not interfere and nullified Georgia laws for Cherokee tribe,

50

Trail of Tears

Cherokees were forced to give up land and travel to Oklahoma (became known as trail of tears)

51

Bank War

Bank applied for recharter, Jackson vetoed bank, clay gave copies of an article about it but it backfired and everyone liked Jackson (for common man) and it hurts our economy

52

Rise of Whig Party

Those who opposed Jackson were the Whigs, like federalists, supporters of clay

53

Election of 1840

Whigs won: William Lloyd Garrison
Copied the tactics of the democrats like common man and followed their strategy

54

2nd American Political Party System

Whigs: opposed Jackson, pro bank, support of industry, protective tariffs, and American system. Upper class

55

William Lloyd Garrison

First Whig elected president, published the liberator, abolitionist, and wanted immediate end to slavery, created anti slavery society and thought slavery was unconstitutional

56

Gag Rule

Prohibited public discussion of certain topics (prevented anti slavery talks)

57

Lowell Mill (Lowell Girls)

Cotton mill where women worked but had lots of rules and regulations, poor conditions, held protests

58

Rising Industrialization

Many mills were being built and encouraged people to work in factories

59

Separate Spheres

Women were homemakers and mothers since men worked at factories, defined roles as caretakers and changed their roles

60

Transportation Revolution

Shorter travel times, easier to transport goods, moved goods to wider markets, steamboats and trains and canals

61

Technology innovations

Telegraph helped communication

62

Erie Canal

Connected Albany and Buffalo and was built because roads were really bad, good transportation

63

Market [R]evolution

Helped change our society by increasing economic activity and allowed young women to have jobs, we developed and invented new things

64

Samuel Slater

Built one of the first and earliest factories in the us

65

Cotton Gin

Manufacturing of cotton became faster and more efficient and cotton became number one crop Eli Whitney

66

Second Great Awakening

Charles Finney, women involved and encouraged others, belief of perfectionism, many Americans we saved

67

Charles G Finney

Preacher of second great awakening, preached perfectionism, everything would lead to hell, we can change our actions to choose our destiny rather than god choosing for us

68

Irish and German Immigrants

Most came from Ireland from potato famine, were poor and more in south, catholic and Germans were in Midwest and were richer and more skilled and Protestant and stayed to culture

69

Nativism

Belief that natives to the US were the best and didn't want anyone else to take over

70

Know Nothing Party

Opposed immigrants and Catholics, middle class and feared that the new immigrants would take over their jobs

71

American System of Manufacturing

Practice of manufacturing and assembling parts, allowed unskilled workers to have jobs for low wages (mass produce)

72

Telegraph

Samuel Morse's telegraph helped communication for trains through wires, made it safer and effecient

73

McCormick's Reaper

Allowed a farmer to harvest more in a day more time and produce more, helped increase productivity

74

Texas

Owned by Mexico, America wanted and got but fought Mexico lots for it, issue of slave and free states

75

Polk Presidency

Annexed Texas, Mexican war and California, had one term, 49th parallel, wanted to go up to 54'40 but got up to 49th parallel to canada

76

Manifest Destiny

Belief that the US had god given right to expand the us westward to the pacific coast

77

Oregon Trail

Route to western US extending from cities to Oregon that had harsh conditions

78

Mormons

Leader Brigham Young who led them to Utah, practiced polygamy so it couldn't become state until it forbid this practice

79

California Gold Rush

James Marshall discovered gold in the rivers of California and more people wanted to become wealthy

80

Mexican American War (causes, main events and effects)

Causes: annexation of Texas, dispute over border
Main events: Austin: first settlers in Texas, Houston: independence from Mexico for Texas, Santa Anna: dictator of Mexico
Alamo: all Americans died end of war and goliad massacre
Effects: treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo and Texas and California

81

Seneca Falls (Declaration of Sentiments)

Convention for women's rights and document was based off declaration and demanded women's rights, started women's rights movements

82

Fredrick Douglass

Black abolitionist who was a slave, gave many lectures for anti slavery

83

Abolition Movement

Harriet Tubman: Underground Railroad: network of abolitionists that helped slaves escape and Harriet risked her life to save others

84

McCulloch vs Maryland

Maryland was taxing branch of us and Marshall says no, implied powers to creat gov,

85

Gibbons vs Ogden

NY was granting monopoly on waterways, no because shared border with NJ

86

Fletcher vs Peck

Georgia overturn to allow land to privately develop? No, first case of unconstitutional

87

Dartmouth vs Woodward

New Hampshire control over Dartmouth? No,

88

Horace Mann

Education reformist,