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Nat Turner Uprising

Slave rebellion led by Nat Turner in which blacks killed whites, resulted in fear and stricter laws for blacks, most important motive was his hatred of slavery and the suffering his people had to endure. Also, Turner thought it was God's will for him to lead a great uprising, said that God spoke to him and told him how to and when to commit this slave revolt.


Demographics of Cotton Kingdom

Lower south part of US (sc-Texas) where cotton was produced fast and supplied 3/4 of world, cotton gin and they did all plantin and field work and slavery increased, more shipped through second middle passage The Louisiana Purchase and the annexation of Texas as a slave state helped to expand the Cotton Kingdom. Politically, cotton became the foundation of southern control of the Democratic Party.


Pro Slavery Arguments

•Would be better off with white families would have food and shelter
•white superiority
•In the bible and other societies in past (natural part)
•would destroy economy
•cheaper to employ slaves


The Growth of Slavery

Due to the cotton gin more production of cotton (more slaves) and we gained more land and problems with whether slave states or free (second middle passage: Resulted in massive numbers of Africans being transported to America as slaves. The "Second Middle Passage" is a phrase coined to refer to the mass movement westward of slaves from the southern United States.


Social Structure of Old South

1. Slave owners
2. Yeomen - nonslave, land (plain folk)
3. Rednecks/hillbillies - live on land but don't own
4. Free Blacks (250,000)
5. Slaves
*many didn't own slaves because they were expensive and cotton lower south and tobacco/corn/rice upper south


Life as a Slave

•were whipped as a form of "coercion" and punishment (best method)
•paternalism: fed slaves to live longer so they didn't have to buy more
•whites felt good about slavery since they wouldn't rebel
•married within but not officially fear if separation


Wilmot Proviso

Banned slavery from all land gained or acquired by Mexico because Mexico didn't have slavery, didn't pass in senate but yes in house (house divided)


Compromise of 1850

•California=free state
•New Mexico and Utah would decide using popular sovereignty
•Texas got $10M for lost NM territory
•ended slave trade in DC but enacted fugitive slave law


Free soil movement and free labor ideal

Opposed the expansion of slavery into western territories, Northern free labor system was superior to that of the southern system. The southern labor system Incorporated slave labor. The Republic ideology of 1852 placed free labor at its center.


Kansas Nebraska Act

•Revoked Missouri compromise •Made Nebraska and Kansas determine by popular sovereignty
•Facilitate building of transcontinental rr (Douglas-needed a way to convince south to facilitate for rr so revoking mi compromise would do it)


Realignment of Political Parties

Whigs: we're becoming amongst themselves due to slavery and had bad luck in elections
Democrats: country's only national party after Whigs were gone, supported pop sovereignty but almost ruined them
Know Nothing's: formed due to immigration and they were against immigration (Catholics Irish and German)
Republican: new anti slavery and provoked by the Kansas Nebraska Act-attempted to unite all those who opposed expansion of slavery (from all parties)
All mainly provoked by Kansas Nebraska act


Bleeding Kansas

Proslavery and free-state settlers flooded into Kansas to try to influence the decision of it being free or slave (new englanders and Missouri) . Violence soon erupted as both factions fought for control


Dred Scott Decision

Black slave purchased by master who would travel to free states with him and he thought he could be free because he traveled to those free states and took to court but they denied because he wasn't a citizen and said Missouri compromise was unconstitutional


Abraham Lincoln's views on slavery

Thought it was morally wrong, didn't want expansion of slavery, lincoln thought blacks shouldn't had same rights as whites, said it was allowed by constitution and viewed goal as unachievable


John Brown's Raid in Harper Ferry

First time a white man fought for black slaves, south became more suspicious about north attacking them, attempt by john brown to start armed slave revolt to seize us ships


Election of 1860

Lincoln won the election against John Breckinridge (dem-split in two)
John Bell (constitutional union party-didn't want slavery platform) and Stephen Douglas (other dem-split because if didn't want federal slave codes) and he won 40% pop but won in electoral because free states had more electoral and he won all but 1)


Secession & Confederate States of America

SC seceded first and more after Lincoln took office, they were afraid he would abolish slavery and seceded ASAP, crittenden compromise failed because it gave too many concessions to south, attempt to resolve secession
Jefferson Davis (p) Alexander Stephens (vp) lincoln said he had no right to interfere with slavery were it existed


Lincoln's views on secession

He said secession was impossible and promised he would never be the first to attack, Lincoln claimed they don't have right to secede and opposed because you can't physically separate them and is unlawful and unconstitutional (strict view)


Attack on Fort Sumter

Union wanted to keep it because it was a symbol, in 1861 in charleston SC, wanted troops out but lincoln says no and gave resources and we surrendered and confederacy won


Strengths and Weaknesses of Confederacy and Union

Confederacy: (S) cotton-British ally, military strategy (W): low population and more slaves
Union: (S): population, production, ships, experienced gov (W) economy, not complete agreement of Slavery, lost good leaders, didn't know much of land


Civil War International Diplomacy

The south thought that European nations would side with them due to their need of cotton but they just got from other places and the battle of Antietam made Europe think twice about joining confederacy


Union War Tactics and Strategy

Anaconda Plan: strategy for overcoming seceding states and helped union win because it blocked southern ports and said to go to MI river and split south into 2, McClellan frustrated lincoln because he didn't take risks


Lincoln And Civil Liberties

He limited civil liberties by suspending habeas corpus was suspended (people deemed unloyal to union could be arrested without cause) civil law suspended in areas of south under union control and placed under martial law, censorship, restrictions on commerce


Battle of Antietam

Major union victory and allowed lincoln to issue emancipation proclamation and he didn't seem to desperate and made European think twice on joining confederacy, 1862, MD, Robert e lee and bloodiest and lee wanted to be aggressive and win when good


Emancipation Proclamation

Lincoln wanted to save union but not abolish slavery, it freed slaves where war was still in rebellion, slavery still existed in loyal states and was military necessity


Role of African Americans in war

Became part of the union army, drafts, faced discrimination in army


Battle of Gettysburg & Vicksburg

(G) Turning points, lee retreated and later on surrendered and ended war
(V) gained control of Mississippi (siege) and stopped resources into south


Sherman's March and total warfare

Marched to savannah SC and burned everything in their way and took food, stole blacks, burned cotton more destruction rather than killing (invading)



A draft law stating any white males age of 18-35 could serve in army, south first because they had less people and needed more for army.


Civil War era Legislation

Legal Tender Act: created a national currency, paper money
National Banking Act: system if National bank done by congress - tax laws
Homestead Act: offered public land to settlers who would live and labor on it new farms
Pacific rr act: provided federal assistance for building transcontinental rr
Morrill act: set aside public land to support universities for agriculture


Lives of Freedmen

Freedmen's bureau: helped support them
Whites were trying to restore supremacy by enforcing the black codes
Most went back to work and were literate and religious


Conflict between presidential and congressional reconstruction

Johnson's plan: go quick, states sign an oath to get back into union and returned all land to the pardoned ex confederates (they ignored him-worksheet) he vetoed whatever congress did and they overrode and they challenged his executive power


Reconstruction amendments

13: abolished slavery
14: made everyone born in us a citizen and prohibited depriving them without due process (ratified 2 years later)
15: prohibited gov from denying citizens right to vote because of race color or servitude (poll taxes and literacy tests)


Military Reconstruction Act of 1867

Divided ex confederate states into 5 districts with union generals to enforce laws, to enforce black suffrage and watched over south


Johnson's impeachment

Violated tenure office act and because he didn't listen to congress, wasn't actually impeached by one vote



Violence due to redeemers with kkk who were against it, against black republicans and to restore white supremacy


Sharecropping and Crop alien System

Sharecroppers divided plantations into small farms that freedmen would rent and would pay sharecroppers back by giving them half of what they earned from crop.
Lien system: advanced goods to sharecroppers for a legal claim on future crops


Grant Presidency

1868-1872: wasn't too good because unable to show talents he displayed on battlefield in the whitehouse, had old friends and many scandals and his ideas didn't appeal to all.


Compromise of 1877

Ended reconstruction by removing southern troops (how Hayes own presidency)


Rise of Redeemers

Bring back white supremacy and democrats back in charge, put Jim Crow laws and Supreme Court was no help, 15 amendment didn't help either and colfax massacre