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Flashcards in Semester Exam Deck (54):

John Brown

•Led followers to seize federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry wanting to start a rebellion
•Arrested and hanged
•Brown and his sons killed 5 pro slavery settlers in Kansas (Pottawatamie Creek Massacre)
•Supported by northern abolitionists to start revolution


Elizabeth Cady Stanton

•Leader of early women's right movement
•Wrote Declaration of Sentiments at Seneca Falls
•Wanted women's voting rights and other women's rights


John C. Calhoun

•VP of Andrew Jackson
•Wanted states rights
•Writer of SC Exposition wanting to nullify the tariff of 1828 and wanted states to be able to nullify fed laws


Chief Joseph

•Chief of the Nez Perce tribe (NA)
•Tried to fight against white settlers but then ran for Canadian border so they wouldn't have to live on reservation
•US Army chased them and caught and returned to reservations
•"I will fight no more forever"


Jefferson Davis

•President of the Confederate States of America
•Lost against the US during Civil War (but placed Robert E. Lee)
•Couldn't get any foreign help
•Didn't pay much attention to the economy of the confederacy and the were in inflation


Stephen Douglass

•Senator from Illinois
•Broke compromise of 1850 into smaller parts to let is pass through congress
•Introduced Kansas Nebraska Act
•Lincoln-Douglass debates
•Thought popular sovereignty was how to handle slavery


Thomas Edison

•Invented many useful inventions
•Phonograph, motion picture camera, light bulb (electricity began to spring around the US)


Benjamin Franklin

•Served in second continental congress and drafted/signed the Declaration of Independence


Ulysses S. Grant

•18th President
•Fought in Mexican War, captured Vicksburg during Civil War, and accepted Lee's surrender
•Secretary of War by Andrew Johnson but disagreed with him and won election through support of radical republicans
•Known for many scandals- whiskey ring and credit mobilier


Helen Hunt Jackson

•Writer of A Century of Dishonor
•Poet and writer who became an activist to improve treatment for native Americans


Andrew Jackson

•7th president
•Invaded Spanish Florida to stop NA rebellions
•After treaty for war of 1812 was signed he invaded New Orleans (hero)
•For the farmer
•Signed Indian removal act


Robert E. Lee

•During Civil War served as leader of the army
•Won many battles, good on battlefield and tactician
•Surrendered to Ulysses Grant at Appomattox Court House in 1865 letting the north win


James Madison

•4th president
•"Father of the Constitution"
•Helped write federalist papers
•Wrote the Virginia Plan
•Pressure from "war hawks" to get involved in napoleonic wars and end embargo act
•Led US into war of 1812-1814 (end)


John Marshall

•Chief Justice for Supreme Court for 34 years
•Federalist - his view on more national power was seen in many of the decisions he made AGAINST states rights
•Established Judicial review through Marbury vs. Madison
•Fletcher v Peck, Dartmouth v Woodward, McCulloch v Maryland and Gibbons v Ogden


JP Morgan

•Finance Capitalist during the gilded age
•Merged with Carnegie Steel Company


Lucretia Mott

•American Quaker, abolitionist, women's rights activist, and social reformer
•Helped find the American Anti Slavery Society and gave speeches
•Present at Seneca Falls convention


Thomas Paine

•Writer of Common Sense
•Inspired and sparked the American Revolution
•Wanted independence from Britian (common sense)


James K. Polk

•11th president
•Believed in manifest destiny and expanded much during presidency
•Gained California
•Started the Mexican War and led US into it
•Oregon Treaty (49 parallel instead of 54'40)
•Lowered high rates of tariffs with Walker tariff


William Sherman

•General in union army during civil war
•Sherman's March to the Sea: left Atlanta and captured savannah SC,
•Destroyed crops, slaves, infrastructure and industry (a new kind of warfare)


Harriet Beecher Stowe

•Abolitionist and author
•Uncle Tom's Cabin: portrayed the truth of slavery and made northerners hate it even more and South despised the north



•NA chief who encourages British forces to fight against pressures removal of Indians from west
•William Henry Harrison destroyed the confederacy he created at Tippecanoe


George Washington

•Commander in chief of continental forces during American revolution
•Cornwallis surrendered to him
•First president
•Set precedents
•Proclamation of Neutrality: us neutral in European wars
•Farewell Address: warned of political parties and alliances with other countries


Roger Williams

•Puritan preacher who fled to MA because of his religious views
•Founded Rhode Island
•Place of religious freedom, many came and constant turmoil


City Upon a Hill

•Phrase in John Winthrop's sermon
•Warned future Massachusetts Bay Colonists that new city would be city upon a hill
•Watched by the world


Indentured Servitude

•Poor workers, criminals, and debtors got immigration passage in return for years of labor for a planter
•Voluntary and kept some legal rights
•Little control of conditions and harsh treatment
•System of labor until 1670's
•Bacon's rebellion made it seem risky so slave labor


First Great Awakening

•Series of emotional religious revivals in colonies
•Message of personal repentance and emphasized faith
•Equality between God and Bible
•George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards
•New colleges founded


Pueblo Revolt

•Uprising of pueblo Indians against Spanish colonizers in Santa Fe NM
•Pueblo killed many Spanish and drove the rest out
•After 12 years Spanish returned and re occupied it


Salutary Neglect

•England's beneficial policy of not interfering with its American colonies
•Policy of avoiding strict enforcements of British laws on Colonies to keep them obedient


Stamp Act

•Internal tax to raise revenue
•Required Americans to use stamped paper for things
•Revenue from this tax was for support of British soldiers protecting colonies


Republican Motherhood

•Women were becoming educated to educate their children who would be the next generations of activists
•After the American revolution


Shay's Rebellion

•Daniel Shay led a group of farmers to stop the courts from seizing a farmers land and enacting debt collection
•People of Boston raised an army and crushed rebels
•Americans pressured to strengthen gov and avoid future violence
•Catalyst (speed up) for writing constitution


Constitutional Convention

•In Pennsylvania, intended to revise article of confederation
•James Madison and Hamilton urged for new government
•George Washington presided over it
•Created the constitution (great compromise)


Hamilton's Economic Plan

Tried to stable American finances,
1) assumption of state debts
2) creation of national bank
3) promotion of manufacturing industry
Federalist supported and republicans against - too British and favored elites and rich


Alien and Sedition Acts

Four laws by the us signed by Adams that said nobody could criticize government and made naturalization take longer, harder for aliens


Election of 1800

Winner was Thomas Jefferson, peaceful transfer of power between the two political parties
(fed->democrat republicans) opponent was John Adams (no second term)


Marbury vs Madison

Established judicial review,


War of 1812

Causes: French and British impressment of American ships, us thought British were helping natives and still with colonies, embargo act, trade conflict
Main Events: war hawks in congress convince Madison to declare war, battle of Lake Erie (British naval attack-perry), burning of Washington then Baltimore but we prevented, battle of New Orleans
Effects: status quo antebellum, nationalism (gained respect around world), better military, manufacturing, Hartford convention and treaty of Ghent, natives lose more land


Missouri Compromise

Missouri was to be a slave state and admitted Maine as a free state to maintain balance in senate, no slavery above 36'30 line besides Missouri
Tallmadge amendment: stop slave import, slaves free when they reach an age


Clay's American System

1) recharter of bank
2) high protective tariffs
3) internal improvements
To encourage manufacturing and federal spending for internal improvements


Monroe Doctorine

Warned European powers to stay out of Western Hemisphere, wouldn't allow them to, feared international influence,



•Policy of protecting interests of natives against immigrants (original Americans)


Indian Removal Act

•Passed by Andrew Jackson
•Native Americans forced removal into area west of Mississippi for their homelands


Jacksonian Democracy

•Strong executive, relied on party system and emphasized states rights
•Used spoils system
•More participation, power and issues


Bank War

•Issue over rechartering the second bank of the us
•When congress voted to recharter Jackson vetoed (abolish)
Bank applied for recharter, Jackson vetoed bank, clay gave copies of an article about it but it backfired and everyone liked Jackson (for common man) and it hurts our economy


Mexican War

Causes: annexation of Texas, dispute over border
Main events: Austin: first settlers in Texas, Houston: independence from Mexico for Texas, Santa Anna: dictator of Mexico
Alamo: all Americans died end of war and goliad massacre
Effects: treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo and Texas and California


Compromise of 1850

•California=free state
•New Mexico and Utah would decide using popular sovereignty
•Texas got $10M for lost NM territory
•ended slave trade in DC but enacted fugitive slave law


Kansas Nebraska Act

•Revoked Missouri compromise •Made Nebraska and Kansas determine by popular sovereignty
•Facilitate building of transcontinental rr (Douglas-needed a way to convince south to facilitate for rr so revoking mi compromise would do it)


Election of 1860

Lincoln won the election against John Breckinridge (dem-split in two)
John Bell (constitutional union party-didn't want slavery platform) and Stephen Douglas (other dem-split because if didn't want federal slave codes) and he won 40% pop but won in electoral because free states had more electoral and he won all but 1)


Writ of Habeas Corpus

•Lincoln suspended during civil war
•Restricted civil liberties


Jim Crow Laws

•Laws separating blacks and whites in public places and restricting freedoms
•Supported by plessy v ferguson


Tenure of Office Act

•Intended to restrict executive power
•Can't remove office holders without approval of senate
•Andrew Johnson didn't follow so impeached not by one vote


Dawes Act of 1887

•Attempt to "Americanize" Indians
•Gave them 160 acres of land and after 25 years it would become theirs if they obeyed and could become a citizen


Collective bargaining

•Negotiating as a group with employers and had more attention


Social Darwinism

•Survival if the fittest
•You get what you earn by rising to the top and wealth was for those who could manage it