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Flashcards in Chapter 9 Deck (14):

John Adams

Active Patriot for Massachusetts
Vice President under Washington
Time in office was troubled


Alein and Sedition Acts

Public grew upset at foreign attempts to influence government
Suspicious of aliens, residents who are not citizens
Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition Acts
Sedition means activities weakening the government
The Alien and Sedition Acts allowed the president to imprison aliens, could deport those that dangerous
Republicans saw the Alien and Sedition Acts as Federalist tyranny
Looked to the states to protect people’s rights
Madison and Jefferson wrote statements of protest, Virginia and Kentucky passed resolutions
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 and 1799 claimed the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the Constitution


Bank of the U.S.

Hamilton asked Congress to create a National Bank
Bank of the United States would hold the government funds
Issue a single form of money for use throughout the nation-a national currency
Madison and Jefferson opposed a national bank, believing it would help the wealthy
Congress did not give Congress the power to create a bank
Hamilton believed the Constitution indirectly gave Congress the power to create a bank because Congress has the power to collect taxes and borrow money
Washington agreed and a national bank was created
Opposition to Hamilton’s ideas grew as Jefferson and Madison worried Hamilton was building a dangerously powerful government run by the rich
They began to organize opposition to Hamilton



A person nominated by party to run for office


Democratic- Republicans

Feared a strong central government
Believed democracy and liberty would be safe only if ordinary people took part fully in government



Supported representative government, elected officials ruled in the people’s name
Educated, wealthier men should hold office, did not trust ordinary people to make good decisions


Alexander Hamilton

Country needed to be able to borrow money for its government and economy
To do that, government needed to prove it could pay it back
Proposed that the federal government take over state’s wartime debts to pay off the debt as a nation, which would lead to building credit as a country
Believed that the states would be invested in the success of the national government To win support of his plan, especially from Southerners, Hamilton was willing to compromise
If they voted for his plan, he would move the nation’s capital to the South
Congress laid out a special district between Virginia and Maryland along the Potomac River
George Washington chose the site of the new capital
Washington, D.C.
Hamilton asked Congress to create a National Bank


Thomas Jefferson

Won second place in electoral college
Represented Republicans
Helped form political parties


Pinckney's Treaty

Spain nervous and feared US and GB would work together against Spain
Thomas Pinckney went to SPain to settle differences
1795 Pinckney's Treaty gave Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and right to trade at New Orleans


Political Parties

Political Parties Emerge
Two distinct political parties
Federalists, led by Hamilton
Favored a strong federal government
Constitution gave “implied” powers
Supported National Bank as Constitution implied the federal government to create bank
Democratic-Republicans or Republicans, led by Jefferson and Madison
Against Federalists
Believed in strict reading of Constitution
Believed Congressional powers limited
Did not support National Bank


Whiskey Rebellion

New government wanted to collect taxes on some products made in the US
1791 Congress passed a tax on whiskey
Western PA farmers upset by this tax
1794 their anger turned violent with an armed mob attacking tax collectors and burning buildings
This alarmed government leaders
Views as a challenge to the new government
Federal troops sent in
This action sent a strong message: The government would use force to maintain order


George Washington

GW established many of the customs & processes that are still in place today
Under the Constitution, a strong executive branch was established and headed by a single president
April 30, 1789 George Washington took oath of office as President with John Adams as Vice President
Washington knew his actions/decisions would set a precedent or traditions that would shape the nation’s future
Set standard for how long a president could serve
How far the nation should relate to other nations
After eight years in office, Washington decided not to seek a third term
In his Farewell Address, Washington urged his fellow citizens to “observe good faith and justice toward all is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances.”
Washington also urged against a growing threat to the young nation: political parties


XYZ Affair

French seized American ships carrying cargo to Britain
Adams sent Americans to France to resolve the issue, but French officials would not meet with Americans, sent three agents instead
Demanded a bride and loan from America
Adams was furious and urged Congress to prepare for war
In his report to Congress, Adams used the letters X, Y, and Z in place of French agents’ names



Executive Branch starts to form…
Washington chose leading political figures to head offices and departments
Thomas Jefferson=Head of State
Alexander Hamilton=Department of Treasury
Henry Knox=Secretary of Defense
Edmund Randolph= Attorney General
Main job was to provide advice to Washington
This group of men formed the Cabinet
President has power to dismiss cabinet members without Senate approval