Chapter B4- Organising Animals And Plants Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter B4- Organising Animals And Plants Deck (13):

What is do arteries do?

What do the veins do?

What do the capillaries do?

What are the three characteristics of an artery?

What are the four characteristics of a vein?

What is the lumen of a blood vessel?

What are the veins, arteries and capillaries classified as?

What do arteries contain/carry?

What do veins contain/carry?

What do the muscles and elastic fibres in arteries enable them to do?

What do veins also contain and why?

Carry blood away from the heart (usually).

Carry blood to the heart (usually).

Site of gaseous exchange (small/tiny blood vessels).

Higher blood pressure
Elastic fibres
Smaller lumen

Lower blood pressure
Elastic fibres
Bigger lumen

The hole through which blood travels through.

Organs (due to the aggregation of tissues).

Oxygenated blood (usually)

De-oxygenated blood (usually)

They contain thick layers of muscle to make them strong and elastic fibres to allow them to stretch and spring back

They contain valves to help keep the blood flowing in the right direction.


What is the middle of the heart called and what does it do?

What are the four chambers of the heart?

What do valves do in the heart and blood vessels?

What's so special about the pulmonary artery?

What's so special about the pulmonary vein?

Where does the pulmonary artery travel to?

What do the coronary arteries do?

The septum, which stops blood mixing.

Right atrium
Right ventricle
Left atrium
Left ventricle.

They stop the backflow of blood.

The only artery with de-oxygenated blood and C02 flowing through it.

The only vein with oxygenated blood flowing through it.

The lungs where the red blood cells pick up oxygen.

Supply blood to the heart (from the aorta).


What happens when you breathe in (concerning the muscles of breathing)?

What do this cause?

What then happens?

What happens when you breathe out?

What then happens?

What does this cause?

What are the lungs full of?

What is a single alveoli called?

The diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract.

The volume of the lungs to increase.

Air moves into the lungs.

The diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax.

The volume in the lungs decrease.

Air is forced out of the lungs.

Tiny air sacs called alveoli.



What is each alveoli?

Describe how C02 diffuses out of the capillaries?

Describe how oxygen (O2) diffuses into capillaries?

What's the function of red blood cells?

What's the septum of the heart also known as?

Only one cell thick and surrounded by a capillary that also has very thin walls.

Blood moves past the wall of the alveoli and carbon dioxide dissolved in it diffuses out of the capillary and into the alveolus.

At the same time, oxygen that's in the air in the alveolus diffuses into the blood and moves into red blood cells in the blood plasma.

To carry oxygen around the body to cells to be used in aerobic respiration.

The cardiac septum.


What is translocation?

What is the transpiration stream?

What is the job of the xylem vessels?

What is transpiration?

Where in the leaf does transpiration occur?

What is the appearance of xylem tissue?

Where does water evaporate from the leaf?

What's the function of phloem cells?

What is the function of the xylem cells?

The movement of food molecules through phloem tissue.

Hollow tubes strengthened by lignin adapted for the transport of water.

Transports water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves.

The evaporation of water from a leaf.

Through the stomata cells.

They are dead cells that lay end to end when mature.

Through microscopic pores called stomata.

They transport glucose (sugar) and other food substances dissolved in water (up and down the vessels).

They transport water and mineral ions from the roots to the stem and leaves (only in one direction up the vessels).


What three factors can increase transpiration?

What do plant tissues include?

What is the leaf classified as?

What cells surround the stomata cells?

What are root hair cells adapted for?

What do the roots, stem and leaves form?

What is this for?

Wind speed, sunlight and increased temperature.

Epidermal tissues, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll, xylem and phloem, meristem tissue (which is found at the growing tips of shoots and root).

An organ.

Guard cells.

The efficient uptake of water by osmosis (the diffusion of water), and mineral ions by active transport.

A plant organ system.

The transport of substances around the plant.


What is the function of the following plant tissues:



Spongy mesophyll



Transparent and cells make waxy cuticle and have many opening to let CO2 in and O2 out.

Adapted for maximum photosynthesis (absorption of light).

Traps CO2, O2, H2O.

Transports water and nutrients upwards from roots to leaves.

Transports glucose dissolved in water up and down the plant.


What does xylem tissue transport?

What are they composed of?

What is the role of the stomata and guard cells?

What does phloem tissue transports?

What is translocation?

What is phloem composed of?

What can cell sap do in phloem cells?

Water and mineral ions from the roots to the stem and leaves (up).

Hollow tubes strengthened by lignin adapted for the transport of water in the transpiration system.

To control gas exchange and water loss.

Dissolved sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant for immediate use for respiration or storage.

The movement of food molecules through phloem tissue.

Tubes of elongated cells.

Can move from one phloem cell to the next through pores in the end walls.


What is the cuticle?

What are the five parts of the leaf called?

What is the upper epidermis?

What is the two adaptations for maximum photosynthesis?

What three gases does the one of the layers trap (and which one)?

What does the last layer contain?

A waxy waterproof layer on the top of the leaf that bounces water droplets of it.

Upper epidermis
Palisade (mesophyll) layer
Spongy mesophyll layer
Lower epidermis.

The transparent and cells that make the waxy cuticle.

1. Long and thin to absorb maximum light.
2. They have many chloroplasts containing chlorophyll.

Spongy mesophyll:

Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Oxygen (O2)
Water vapour (H2O).

Many openings or pores called stomata to let CO2 in and O2 out.


How many guard cells makes one stomata cell?

What are the three features of root hair cells?

What three types of tissue does transpiration occur?

What do guard cells also contain?

What three things do palisade mesophyll cells contain?

What is translocation?

Why does water escape from the leaves through the stomata by diffusion?

2 guard cells.

1. Long extensions
2. Many mitochondria.
3. Large surface area for absorption of water.

Cuticular, lenticular and stomatal.

Chloroplasts and so carry out photosynthesis.

Chloroplasts the site of photosynthesis. They also hold food and water.

The transport of sugars around the leaf

Because there's more water inside the plant than in the air outside.


What is the resting rhythm of a healthy heart?

Where are the cells found in the body that act as a natural pacemaker?

What happens if the heart beats too slowly?

What happens if the heart beats too fast?

What can be used instead and how does it do this?

What does this device do and why?

What two things can happen when a heart fails completely?

What can be used momentarily if the waiting list is too long for donor hearts?

Why else can artificial hearts be used?

What do heart valves have to withstand?

What three things can happen to heart valves over time?

What does these problems make the heart?

What are biological valves/made from/last?

What are mechanical valves/made from/last?

Around 70 beats per minute

Found in the right atrium of the heart.

The person affected won't get enough oxygen

It can't pump blood properly

An artificial pacemaker, an electrical device used to correct irregularities in heart rate.

Sends strong, regular electrical signals to the heart that stimulate it too beat properly

A donor heart or heart and lungs can be transplanted

Temporary hearts

To give a diseased heart a rest, so that it can recover

They may start to leak or become stiff and not open fully

Less efficient

Based on valves taken from animals such as pigs or cattle and even sometimes human donors. However, only last 12-15 years

Made of materials such as titanium and polymers. However, you have to take medication for the rest of your life to prevent blood clotting around it.


How many circulatory systems do humans have and explain?

What are the advantages of the following characteristics of a capillary:

They carry the blood really close to every cell in the body

They have permeable walls

Their walls are usually only one cell thick (and how in detail)

What is the equation for calculating the rate of blood flow?

What do the capillary supply and take away from/to the muscles?

What is the function (job) of a red blood cell?

What is the shape of a red blood cell and what does this enable?

What don't they contain inside their cell and what does this enable?

What red pigment do red blood cells contain?

What happens to the red blood cells in the lungs (in detail)?

What happens to the red blood cells in body tissues (in detail)?

Humans have a double circulatory system- two circuits joined together

To exchange substances with them

So substances can diffuse in and out

This increases the rate of diffusion by decreasing the distance over which it occurs

Rate of blood flow= Volume of blood -:- Number of minutes

Food and oxygen, and take away waste like CO2

To carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells in the body

Their shape is a biconcave disc (like a doughnut) which gives them a larger surface area for absorbing oxygen

They don't have a nucleus- allowing for more room to carry oxygen


In the lungs, haemoglobin binds to oxygen to become oxyhaemoglobin

In body tissues, the reverse happens: oxyhaemoglobin splits up into haemoglobin and oxygen to release oxygen to the cells.


What are the two structures of platelets?

What is the function of platelets (in detail)?

What two things are caused by lack of platelets?

What is the blood plasma?

What seven substances does the blood plasma carry?

They are small fragments of cells and they have no nucleus

They help blood to clot at a wound- to stop all of the blood pouring out and to stop microorganisms getting in

Excessive bleeding and bruising

The pale straw coloured liquid that fills the blood

-Red and white blood cells and platelets
-Nutrients like glucose and amino acids (these are the soluble products of digestion which are absorbed from the gut and taken to the cells of the body
-Carbon dioxide from the organs to the lungs
-Urea from the liver and kidneys
-Antibodies and antitoxins produced by the white blood cells.