Chapter B7- Non Communicable Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter B7- Non Communicable Diseases Deck (7):
1

What are non communicable diseases and why do effect people?

What is metabolism?

What is anabolism and give an example?

What is the breaking down of large molecules into smaller molecules?

Give an example of this?

What increases during exercise and why?

What happens if insufficient oxygen is supplied?

What is this and what does this cause?

What can happen during long periods of vigorous activity?

Diseases that aren't infectious and effect people as a result of their genetic makeup, their lifestyle and factors in their environment.

The total of all cell reactions in the body.

Anabolism is the build up of large molecules from smaller molecules (eg glucose into starch).

Catabolism.

For example, glycogen into glucose.

The heart rate, breathing rate and breath volume increase during exercise to supply the muscles with more oxygenated blood.

Anaerobic respiration takes place in muscles.

The incomplete oxidation of glucose causes a build up of lactic acid and creates an oxygen debt.

Muscles become fatigued and stop contracting efficiently.

2

What transports the lactic and where is it transported to and why?

What is oxygen debt?

What conversion of what is included in metabolism?

What formation of what is included in metabolism?

What use of what is included in metabolism?

What two other reactions are included in metabolism?

What happens in coronary heart disease (CHD)?

What does this reduce and therefore result in?

Blood flowing through the muscles transports the lactic acid to the liver where it is converted back into glucose.

The amount of extra oxygen the body needs after exercise to react with the accumulated lactic acid and remove it from cells.

The conversion of glucose to starch, glucose and cellulose.

The formation of lipid molecules from a molecule of glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids.

The use of glucose and nitrate ions to form amino acids which in turn are used to make proteins.

-Respiration
-Breakdown of excess proteins to form urea for excretion.

When layers of fatty material build up inside the coronary arteries, narrowing them.

The flow of blood through the coronary arteries, resulting in a lack of oxygen for the heart muscles.

3

What are stents used for?

What else are stents widely used for?

What can happen to some people's heart valves and what does this prevent?

What can faulty heart valves be replaced with?

What can happen in case of heart failure?

What is occasionally used to keep patients alive in this instance and for what two reasons?

What's the resting rhythm of a healthy heart?

Where in the heart are the group of cells found that act as a natural pacemaker?

They are used to keep the coronary arteries open.

Widely used to reduce blood cholesterol levels which slows down the rate of fatty material deposit.

The heart valves may become faulty, preventing the valve from opening fully or the heart valve may develop a leak.

They can be replaced using biological or mechanical valves.

Donor hearts, or heart and lungs can be transplanted.

Artificial hearts are occasionally used to keep patients alive whilst waiting for a heart transplant or to allow the heart to rest as an aid to recovery.

Around 70 beats per minute.

Found in the right atrium of your heart.

4

What happens if a persons natural pacemaker beats too slowly?

What happens if a persons natural pacemaker beats too fast?

What can solve this unnatural rhythm?

What does this send?

What can be used instead if a heart fails completely?

What two things can also be used if the donor waiting list is too long and when?

What are one of the main risks associated with non communicable diseases?

What two risk factors are linked to an increase rate of a disease?

The person affected won't get enough oxygen.

It can't pump blood properly.

An artificial pacemaker.

Strong, regular electrical signals to your heart that stimulate it to beat properly.

A donor heart or heart and lungs can be transplanted.

-Temporary hearts to support your natural heart.
-Artificial hearts, used to give a diseased heart a rest.

The intake of carcinogens.

-Aspects of a person's lifestyle
-Substances in the person's body or environment.

5

What three things can have affect on cardiovascular disease?

What is obesity a risk factor for?

What two things can alcohol have an effect on?

What two things can smoking have an effect on?

What can the effects of smoking and alcohol have an affect on?

What are risk factors of cancer?

What are many diseases caused by the interaction of?

What are cancers the result of?

The effects of diet, smoking and exercise.

Type 2 diabetes.

Liver and brain function.

Lung disease and lung cancer.

Unborn babies.

Carcinogens, including ionising radiation.

The interaction of a number of factors.

Changes in the cells that lead to uncontrolled growth and division.

6

What are benign tumours?

Where is this usually contained?

What do benign tumours not invade?

What are malignant tumours?

What do these cells invade and spread to and how?

What are other factors for some cancers?

What is the definition of health?

What types of diseases are major causes of ill health?

What are other factors that may have a profound effect on both physical and mental health?

Growths of abnormal cells which are contained in one area.

Within in a membrane.

Other parts of the body.

Cells that are cancers.

They invade neighbouring tissues and spread to different parts of the body in the blood where they form secondary tumours.

Genetic risk.

The state of physical and mental well being.

Both communicable and non communicable.

Diet, stress, and life situations.

7

What do defects in the immune system cause?

What can viruses living in cells be the trigger for?

What can immune reactions caused by a pathogen trigger?

What can severe physical ill health lead to?

What are causals?

Mean that an individual is more likely to suffer from infectious diseases.

Cancers.

Allergies such as skin rashes and asthma.

Depression and other mental illness.

Factors that directly cause a disease (eg smoking and lung cancer).