Chapter B10- The Human Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter B10- The Human Nervous System Deck (10):
1

What does Homeostasis maintain?

What three functions does this include maintaining?

What two responses may these automatic control systems involve?

What are receptors?

What are stimuli?

What are coordination centres and what do they do?

Give all three examples of coordination centres?

What do effectors, muscles or glands do?

What three things do all control systems include?

What does the human nervous system enable humans to do?

Where does the information from receptors pass along to (in detail)?

What are the two central nervous systems in the body?

What does the central nervous system (CNS) do?

What are the two forms of these?

Optimal conditions for enzyme action and all cell functions

-Blood glucose concentration
-Body temperature
-Water levels

Nervous or chemical responses

Cells which detect stimuli

Changes in the environment

They receive and process information from receptors

Such as the brain, spinal cord and pancreas

They bring about responses which restore optimum levels

Receptors; coordination centres; effectors, muscles or glands

Enable humans to react to their surroundings and to coordinate their behaviour

Passes along cells (neurones) as electrical impulses to the central nervous system (CNS)

The brain and the spinal cord

Coordinates the response of effectors

These effectors may be in the form of muscles contracting or glands secreting hormones.

2

What two things are reflex actions?

What part of the brain do they not involve?

What type of cell is a receptor?

What happens if a receptor detects a stimulus?

Where is this created?

What type of cell is this?

Where does this cell carry the impulse to and why?

In what order does this process of detecting a stimuli happen?

Automatic and rapid

The conscious part of the brain

Specialised cell

It will create an electrical impulse

In an attached nerve cell (neurone)

A neurone which is also specialised

To the co-ordinator (CNS) for a response

Stimulus---Receptor---Coordinator---Effector (muscle or gland)---Response.

3

What are sensory neurones?

What are motor neurones?

What are inter/relay neurons?

Where are hearing/balance receptors found?

Where are chemical receptors found?

Where are sensory receptors found?

What type of neurone are all receptors attached to?

What are the four type of receptor cells found in the skin?

What are the three main parts of a neurons structure?

Attached to your senses

Attached to your muscles

Connect the sensory to motor neurons

In the ears

In the nose

In the skin

A sensory neurone

Pain, pressure, temperature and touch receptors

Cell body, nucleus and axon.

4

What is a synapse (in detail)?

What are/do neurotransmitters do?

How do they do this?

What types of energy does this process change from?

What happens once the neurotransmitters are received by the neurone?

What is the reflex arc?

What is a reflex action (in detail)?

What are all sensory neurones connected to and how?

The gap (fluid filled) between two neurones

Allow the electrical impulse to cross the synapse (they are chemicals)

By crossing the gap from one neurone to another

Electrical energy---Chemical energy

The electrical impulse is recreated and passed on

The nerve pathway which makes a fast, automatic response possible

Signals that are passed directly from a sensory neurone, via a relay neurone, to a motor neurone for instant unthinking action

To all sense organs via receptor cells.

5

What happens in an emergency if a receptor cell detects a change in the environment?

What are these three neurones?

What is accommodation?

What three things occur to the ciliary muscles, suspensory ligaments and the lens to focus on a near object?

What is short sightedness and describe it?

What three things occur to the ciliary muscles, suspensory ligaments and the lens to focus on a distant object?

What is long sightedness and describe it?

What happens in these two common defects of the eyes?

The brain is missed out as a coordinator and the impulse travels along three neurones only

Sensory, relay (intermediary) and motor neurones

The process of changing the shape of the lens to focus on near or distant objects

The ciliary muscles contract; the suspensory ligaments loosen; the lens is then thicker and refracts light rays strongly

Myopia (unable to focus on distant objects)

The ciliary muscles relax; the suspensory ligaments are pulled tight; the lens is then pulled thin and only slightly refracts light rays

Hyperopia (unable to focus on near objects)

The rays of light do not focus on the retina.

6

In what way can short and long sightedness be treated and how does it do this?

What are three new technologies that help fix long and short sightedness?

What is the tough white outer layer of the eye called?

What and where is the cornea and what does it do?

What is the iris?

What is the centre of the eye called?

What does the iris contain and what does this allow for it to control?

With spectacle lenses which refract the light rays so that they do focus on the retina

Hard and soft contact lenses; laser surgery to change the shape of the cornea and a replacement lens in the eye

Sclera

The transparent outer layer found at the front of the eye. It refracts (bends) light into the eye

The coloured part of the eye

Pupil

Muscles that allow it to control the diameter of the pupil and therefore how much light enters the eye.

7

What does the lens do?

What are the two types of cells in the retina?

Which one of these cells detect black and white?

Which one detects colour?

What do both of these cells do?

What is the blind spot?

Why is this?

What does the optic nerve do?

What is the aqueous humour?

It focuses light onto the retina

Rods and cones

Rods

Cones

They turn the picture created into an electrical message for the brain

This is a bit of the retina which is not sensitive to light

Because there are no rods or cones there

Sends/carries electrical impulses from the receptors on the retina (cones and rods) to the brain

The watery stuff that fills the front of the eyeball.

8

What is the vitreous humour?

Why is this liquid clear?

What are the ciliary muscles?

What do they do?

What type of lens cure myopia and describe the shape?

What type of lens cure hyperopia and describe the shape?

What do myopia lenses do?

What do hyperopia lenses do?

What happens when a muscle contracts?

What three things occur in myopia?

What three things occur in hyperopia?

Where are the images of distant objects brought into focus in myopia?

Where are the images of near objects brought into focus in hyperopia?

The thicker jelly like liquid which fills the larger part of the eyeball and keeps it in shape

So that light can pass through it

These are a circle of tiny muscles around the lens

They change the shape of the lens by squeezing and relaxing

Concave lens (lens which curve inwards)

Convex lens (lens which curve outwards)

Pushes the light rays apart

Pushes the light rays together

It gets shorter and thicker

In myopia, the lens is in the wrong shape and refracts the light too much or the eyeball is too long

In hyperopia, the lens is in the wrong shape and doesn't refract (bend) the light enough or the eyeball is too short

In myopia, the images of distant objects are brought into focus in front of the retina

In hyperopia, the images of near objects are brought into focus behind the retina.

9

What is the cerebral cortex?

What five functions does the cerebral cortex control?

Where is the cerebellum located in the brain?

What three functions does the cerebellum control?

What does the brain stem refer to?

What is another name for the brain stem?

What are the three functions that the brain stem controls?

What/where is the hypothalamus located?

What are the four functions that the hypothalamus controls?

How does the hypothalamus control the first function?

What is the hippocampus?

What are the two functions that the hippocampus controls?

A sheet of tissue that makes up the outer layer of the brain

Thought; voluntary movement; language; reasoning and perception

It is located behind the brain stem

Movement; posture and balance

The area of the brain between the thalamus and spinal cord

The medulla

Breathing; heart rate and blood pressure

Composed of several different areas and is located at the base of the brain

Body temperature; emotions; hunger and thirst

The hypothalamus detects changes in body temperature and sends commands to adjust the temperature

One part of the limbic system

Learning and memory.

10

In what two ways can the brain be investigated by and why?

Why is surgery on the brain difficult?

What can this easily cause?

What are sensory neurones?

What are the type of receptors found in the nose and tongue?

How is a nerve signal (electrical impulse) transferred across a synapse?

What is the eye and what does it contain (definition in detail)?

-By electrically stimulating parts of the brain to see what effect this has
-By using a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan to see which part of the brain has been affected after an accident

It is not fully understood what each area of the brain actually does

Unintended damage

Cells that carry impulses from the sense organs to the central nervous system (CNS)

Chemoreceptors

The nerve signal is transferred by chemicals which diffuse (move) across the gap

A sense organ containing receptors sensitive to light intensity and colour