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The French and Indian War - causes and results (5 of them)

-France and Britain both wanted control over the Ohio River Valley
-The colonists fought alongside the British to win the war
-Many Native American tribes joined France
-the results were:
•France loses North American possessions
•Britain is left in debt
•Colonists develop a sense of unity
•Colonists begin to settle in Ohio River Valley
•Native Americans resisted their settlement



A force of civilians trained as soldiers, but not a part of the regular army.


George Washington

-young member of the militia
-began his service as a land surveyor
-hoped to join the British army
-became commander of continental army in 1775


Defeat of General Braddock

-he wasn't used to fighting in North America
-led his troops through dense forests with their bright red uniforms, making them a perfect target for ambushers
-ignored several warnings from colonial soldiers and even Benjamin Franklin
-went through with his plan at the cost of many lives including his own
-they were ambushed near Fort Duquesne



An import tax.



Citizen soldiers who could be ready to fight at a minute's notice.


Pontiac's War - what happened and why? what were the results?

-Pontiac, the leader of the Ottowa Nation, formed an alliance with other western Native Americans
-in May 1763, he and his allies attacked British forts and settlements
-in response, the British many Native Americans who had not attacked them
-British defeated Pontiac's forces in August near Fort Pitt
-the war had ended by 1764



Shutting off a port by ships to keep people or supplies from moving in or out.



An agreement between nations or groups to help each other against other nations or groups.


Albany Congress/Albany Plan of Union

-meeting of colonial leaders in Albany, New York
-Benjamin Franklin thought the colonies should band together as one to fight against the French


Battle of Quebec

-the French lost
-they were no longer able to defend themselves
-France was forced to cede
-lost lots of their North American land
-huge turning point for the British



An official end.


Samuel Adams

-cousin of John Adams
-established committees of correspondence


Paul Revere, William Dawes, + Samuel Prescott

-warned malitia near Lexington and Concord about the upcoming arrival of the British troops
-Prescott was the only one successful in getting the message out
-Dawes and Revere were captured


Patrick Henry

-roared "Give me liberty or give me death!" in response to the stamp act
-he was later charged with treason


Sons of Liberty

-secret society formed to protect the rights of the colonists
-took part in many events and protests such as the Boston Tea Party



Soldiers who serve another country for money.


John Adams

-well known Massachusetts lawyer
-defended the British soldiers charged with murder after the Boston Massacre


Proclamation of 1763

-Britain wanted to avoid future wars with Native Americans
-banned colonial settlement west of a line drawn along the Application Mountains
-angered many colonists who believed they had the right to reside wherever they wanted
-widely ignored and proved impossible for the British to enforce



An organized campaign to refuse to buy certain products.


2nd Continental Congress

-2nd meeting of the original Continental Congress
-they began to act like a government by
•agreeing that they needed to prepare for war
•choosing leader of continental army (George Washington)
•printing paper money to pay for the army


Boston Massacre

-angry crowd of workers and sailers surrounded a small group of British soldiers
-threw rocks and snowballs at the soldiers
-frightened soldiers shot at the colonists wounding five and killing six


Battle of Bunker Hill

-actually took place on Breed's Hill
-British were led by William Howe
-first and second British attacks failed
-third British attack only succeeded because the colonists ran out of ammunition
-the British won, but lost twice as many men as the Americans did
-Americans had proven that they could fight and stand up to British troops
-Howe later becomes obsessed with George Washington



A written request to a government.


Quartering Act

-passed one year after the sugar act
-colonists were required to quarter (or house) British troops and provide them with food and other supplies
-colonists protested, and stated that parliament was violating their rights


1st Continental Congress - what did they accomplish?

-demanded a repeal to the Intolerable Acts
-declared the colonists had the right to govern and tax themselves
-trained militias to stand up to British troops
-organized new boycott of British goods (including slaves)
-established patriot government in Massachusetts
-agreed to meet again in the spring if their requests were not fulfilled



Total control of a market for a certain product.


King George III

-responded to Olive Branch Petition by sending 20,000 troops to the colonies.


Stamp Act

-passed in early 1765
-stated that colonists must buy special tax stamps for all kinds of products and activities
-tax hurt lawyers most of all
-protests against the act were widespread


Battle at Fort Ticonderoga

-the fort is located in present day New York
-Fort Ticonderoga controlled the main route between Canada and the Hudson River valley
-held valuable weapons (especially cannons)
-the cannons were later used against British ships in Boston Harbor
-cannons were moved manually


Quebec Act

-French Canadians were forced to move into the Ohio River Valley by the British


Committees of Correspondence

-kept colonists informed of British actions
-committees were established in many places
-wrote letters and pamphlets to spread the alarm when Britain tried to enforce the unpopular acts of parliament
-established by Samuel Adams


Sugar Act

-put duty on several products including molasses and sugar
-harsh punishments for smugglers
-colonial merchants protested


Coercive Acts - what were they? what did the colonists call them?

•closed the port in Boston
•increased the power of the royal governor
•cut the power of town meetings
•abolished the upper house of the Massachusetts legislature
•put Massachusetts under martial law
-colonists called these the "Intolerable Acts"


Writ of Assistance

Court orders which allowed officials to make searches without saying what they were searching for.


Declaratory Act

-passed right after the stamp act was repealed
-stated that parliament had complete authority over the colonies


Writ of Assistance

-court orders which allowed officials to make searches without saying what they were searching for.


Boston Tea Party

-sons of liberty anted to prevent BEIC from unloading tea in the colonies
-Governor Thomas Hutchinson decided to make sure that the tea was unloaded in Boston
-in protest, a group of men from the sons of liberty disguised as Native Americans came aboard the ship and threw thousands of dollars worth of tea overboard



Colonists who favored independence and were willing to fight for it.



Colonists who remained loyal to Britain and the King.


Olive Branch Petition

-stated that colonists were loyal to the king
-asked king to stop fighting so disputes could be solved peacefully
-King George III responded by sending over 20,000 troops to the colonies (mostly Boston)
-got it's name from the olive branch, symbol of peace


Battles of Lexington and Concord

-soldiers were sent to Lexington to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock
-they were then going to continue on to Concord to destroy cannons which the patriots had been storing
-Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Samuel Prescott each attempted to ride to Lexington to tell the Militia that the British would be coming over the river
-77 colonial minutemen met the British troops on Lexington Green
-the British commander ordered the minutemen to leave, but they refused
-suddenly a shot was fired
-no one knows who shot it
-this was the first shot of the Revolutionary War
-it's known as the shot heard 'round the world


Put the following events in chronological order:
•Battle of Lexington and Concord
•Boston Massacre
•Boston Tea Party
•French and Indian War
•Proclamation of 1763
•Quartering Act
•Stamp Act
•Sugar Act
•Townshend Acts

•French and Indian War ~ 1754-1763
•Proclamation of 1763 ~ 1763
•Sugar Act ~ 1764
•Quartering Act ~ 1765
•Stamp Act ~ 1765
•Townshend Acts ~ 1767
•Boston Massacre ~ March 5, 1770
•Boston Tea Party ~ December 16, 1773
•Battle of Lexington and Concord ~ April 18, 1775


Townshend Acts

•taxed products brought into colonies instead of taxing products and activities
•set up a system to enforce the new import duties
•writs of assistance formed because of this