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Flashcards in chapter six Deck (33):
1

Thomas Jefferson

-he wrote declaration of independance
-young lawyer

2

John Locke

-came up with the idea of Natural Rights

3

John Hancock

-he was the first person to sign the declaration of independence
-signed it on July 4, 1776

4

Nathan Hale

-Connecticut officer who volunteered for dangerous spy duty
-his mission was to collect information about British battle plans on Long Island
-he was caught behind British lines and was charged with treason
-he was hanged the next morning
-his last words were: "My only regret is that I have but one life to lose for my country."

5

Mary Ludwig Hayes

-she was a Molly Pitcher (she carried water out to the soldiers fighting in the war)
-her husband was wounded in battle, so she took his place manning a cannon at great personal risk

6

Marquis de Lafayette

-he was a french noble
-he became a high ranking officer in Washington's army
-he became close friends with Washington
-when wounded in battle, Washington told the surgeon to "Treat him as if he were my son."

7

Baron Friedrich Von Steuben

-he was a German baron who helped train the continental army
-he had served in the Prussian army (which was considered the best in Europe)
-before he arrived, troops were poorly trained and disciplined
-he taught them how to march and improve their aim
-one of the most valuable things he taught them was how to attack with bayonets

8

John Paul Jones

-he was a privateer
-he commanded Bonhomme Richard which fought side by side with British warship, Serapis
-he refused to give up even though his ship was in tatters
-"I have not yet begun to fight!"
-captain of Serapis surrenders after many people have died on both ships

9

George Rogers Clark

-he was sent to defend attacks on the frontier
-his forces easily captured Kaskaskia and Cahokia
-after a hard journey, his troops caught the British by surprise with a midwinter attack on the fort at Vincennes
-the British and their Native American allies surrendered
-his victories allowed settlers to remain on the frontier, and strengthened their claim on the Ohio River Valley

10

Francis Marion

-he led his men silently through the swamps
-his troops attacked without warning then hastily escaped back into the swamp
-his guerrilla attacks were so effective he earned the title, 'Swamp Fox'

11

Deborah Sampson

-she joined the army disguised as a man
-when wounded in battle, she cared for herself to keep her identity hidden

12

Lord Charles Cornwallis

-carried the war into North Carolina
-fought in battle of Yorktown
-surrendered in Yorktown

13

King George III

-king of England during the Revolutionary war
-he was a very selfish a rude ruler
-he was called a "royal brute" by Thomas Paine
-he wanted to continue to fight in Yorktown

14

George Washington

-general of the Continental army
-used knowledge to win wars
-lead his army from hardship to victory
-planned to retire to his plantation after the war

15

Thomas Paine

-colonial author
-wrote persuasive pamphlets such as 'Common Sense' and 'The Crisis'
-'Common Sense' was written to convince colonists to side with the Patriots
-'The Crisis' was written to urge Americans to support the Continental army
-Washington had the crisis read to his troops

16

Benjamin Franklin

-member of the American delegation
-part of continental congress
-proof read declaration of independence
-went to France for something that Mrs. K mentioned in class that I can't remember

17

Benedict Arnold

-fought bravely for the patriots
-married loyalist woman
-thought that congress undervalued him
-plotted to turn West Point over to the British
-this was a key fort on the Hudson River in New York
-managed to escape after his plan was discovered

18

Alliance

a formal agreement between two powers to work together toward a common goal

19

Hessian Mercenaries

-mercenaries from Hesse, Germany
-very tough soldiers

20

Traitor

a person who betrays his or her country or cause and helps the other side

21

Mercenaries

soldiers who are paid to fight for a country other than their own

22

Patriot

a colonist who favored independence and was willing to fight for it

23

Lobster Back

a derogatory term for a British soldier

24

Unalienable Rights

rights that cannot be taken away or denied

25

Guerrillas

fighters who work in small bands to make hit and run attacks

26

Pivateers

armed civilian ships that had their government's permission to attack enemy ships and keep their goods (basically pirates, though privateers actually had permission)

27

Cavalry

units of troops on horseback

28

Declaration of Independance

-written by Thomas Jefferson
-contained a preamble and three main sections:
•explanation of natural rights
~"All men are created equal."
~everyone is "endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights."
~[explanation of natural rights]
•list of grievances
~accuses king of...
ignoring rights English citizens have been enjoying since the Magna Carta
"depriving us, in many cases, of trial by jury."
"imposing taxes on us without our consent."
~declares King George "unfit to be the ruler of a free people."
•bond dissolving
~colonies are "free and independent states... and that all political connection between them and Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved."
-serious tone shows that, to the patriots, declaring independence was a serious and deeply felt step
-signed July 4, 1776 by John Hancock

29

Battle of Saratoga

-6,000 soldiers surrounded the village of Saratoga
-Americans won
-major turning point of the war
-lifted patriot spirits
-this solved "the crisis"
-convinced Europeans that the colonists had a chance of winning

30

Valley Forge

-the Continental army suffered through a terrible winter at the camp
-the 11,000 soldiers were not sufficiently fed, clothed, or housed
-women collected food, medicine, and ammunition after hearing about the conditions at the camp
-the Continental army used that winter to gather strength for the battles ahead

31

Battle of Yorktown

-the last major battle in the Revolutionary war
-Cornwallis sent his main troops away to the British fleet
-French ships chased British fleet away
-French and American troops barred escape by land
-General Cornwallis surrendered after three weeks

32

Treaty of Paris

-American delegation included Benjamin Franklin and John Adams
-peace talks began in Paris in 1782
-British were eager for peace, so the Americans got most of what they wanted
•United States was recognized as an independent country
•land taken from loyalists must be returned (recommended earnestly)
•Florida should be returned to Spain
•boundaries were set: the Atlantic on the east, Canada on the north, the Mississippi on the west, and Florida on the south
-approved by congress in 1783, almost exactly eight years after "the shot heard 'round the world"
-ended Revolutionary war

33

Why did the Americans win the war? (Explain)

-Geography:
•Americans had valuable knowledge of the land
-Patriotic Spirit:
•Americans were fighting for their freedom, whereas the British were fighting because it was their job
-Skilled Leadership:
•leaders such as George Washington never gave up, even when a victory over Britain seemed impossible
•other leaders came up with creative new strategies that surprised the British
-Help From Abroad:
•without help from abroad, we may never have won the war
•France lent us their navy
•the Netherlands and Spain helped by causing other conflicts for the British to deal with outside of America
•Marquis de Lafayette and Baron von Steuben both played important roles in the war