CHAPTER III: FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOUR Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CHAPTER III: FACTORS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOUR Deck (31)
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1

The _____ of choosing desired outcomes, deciding how to go about them, assessing whether the likelihood of success warrants the amount of effort that will be necessary, and setting in motion the required behaviours.

A. social process
B.mental process
C. Process theories
D. Content theories

B

2

The _____ by which the behaviour of an individual is influenced by others. 'Motivation' in this sense usually applies to the attempts of organisations to maintain or increase workers' effort and commitment by using rewards and punishments

A. social process
B.mental process
C. Process theories
D. Content theories.

A

3

It assume that human beings have an innate package of motives (needs or desired outcomes) which they take action to pursue. They ask: 'What motivates people?'

A. social process
B.mental process
C. Process theories
D. Content theories.

D

4

It explore the psychological process through which outcomes become desirable and are pursued by individuals. They ask: 'How are people motivated?'

A. social process
B.mental process
C. Process theories
D. Content theories.

C

5

Abraham Maslow (1954) developed the original and most famous ____. He argued that human beings have five innate needs, which he suggested could be arranged in a ‘hierarchy of relative prepotency’

A. Need theory
B. Two-factor theory
C. achievement motivation theory
D. expectancy theory

A

6

Frederick Herzberg (1966) interviewed Pittsburgh engineers and accountants about 'critical incidents' which made them feel good or bad about their work. He identified two basic need categories of individuals at work.

A. Need theory
B. Two-factor theory
C. achievement motivation theory
D. expectancy theory

B

7

These needs are satisfied by what Herzberg called ______ they may minimise dissatisfaction and poor job performance, but have little ability to motivate the individual to higher levels of job satisfaction or extra performance.

A. extrinsic rewards,
B. 'hygiene' factors
C. motivator' factors
D. intrinsic rewards,

B

8

These needs are satisfied by what Herzberg called ______, which are seen to be effective in motivating the individual to more positive attitudes, and greater effort and performance.

A. extrinsic rewards,
B. 'hygiene' factors
C. motivator' factors
D. intrinsic rewards,

C

9

Hygiene factors are essentially____, deriving from factors in the environment or context of work, and offering satisfaction of lower-level needs.

A. extrinsic rewards,
B. 'hygiene' factors
C. motivator' factors
D. intrinsic rewards,

A

10

Motivator factors are essentially_____, deriving from factors inherent in the content of the work itself, and offering psychological satisfaction of higher-level needs.

A. extrinsic rewards,
B. 'hygiene' factors
C. motivator' factors
D. intrinsic rewards,

D

11

He identified four main needs-based motives are achievement, power, affiliation and avoidance.


A. Abraham Maslow
B. Douglas McGregor
C. Frederick Herzberg
D. David McClelland

D

12

The ______ of motivation basically states that the strength of an individual's motivation to do something will be influenced.

A. Need theory
B. Two-factor theory
C. achievement motivation theory
D. expectancy theory

D

13

Vroom (1964) suggested a formula by which motivation could be assessed and measured, based on an expectancy theory model. In its simplest form it may be expressed as:

A. FORCE x VALENCE = EXPECTANCY
B. EXPECTANCY x FORCE = VALENCE
C. VALENCE = FORCE x EXPECTANCY
D. FORCE= EXPECTANCY x VALENCE

A

14

It should be seen as only one of several intrinsic and extrinsic rewards offered by work. If it is used to motivate, it can only do so in a wider context of the job and other rewards.

a. Commitment
b. pay
c. mutual commitment firms
d. Strategic level

B

15

It represents the strength of an individual’s identification with, and involvement in, an organisation. It is a concept that has played an important part in HRM philosophy.It refers to attachment and loyalty.

a. Commitment
b. pay
c. mutual commitment firms
d. Strategic level

A

16

Supportive business strategies, top management value commitment and effective voice for HR in strategy making and governance.


a. Commitment
b. Workplace level
c. Functional
d. Strategic level

D

17

_____ (human resource policy) level: staffing based on employment stabilisation, investment in training and development and contingent compensation that reinforces cooperation, participation and contribution.

a. Commitment
b. Workplace level
c. Functional
d. Strategic level

C

18

It is selection based on high standards, broad task design and teamwork, employee involvement in problem solving and a climate of cooperation and trust.

a. Commitment
b. Workplace level
c. Functional
d. Strategic level

B

19

Kochan and Dyer (1993) indicated that the factors affecting the level of commitment in what they called ‘mutual commitment firms’ were as follows: EXCEPT

a. Commitment
b. Workplace level
c. Functional
d. Strategic level

A

Factors affecting commitment
1. Strategic level
2. Functional
3. Workplace level

20

It takes place when people are committed to their work and the organisation and are motivated to achieve high levels of performance.

a. engagement
b. employee engagement
c. job challenge
d. autonomy

B.

21

Alfes et al (2010) saw engagement as having three core facets: EXCEPT

A. intellectual engagement
B. affective engagement
C. social engagement
D. work engagement

D

22

The term _____can be used in a specific job-related way to describe what takes place when people are interested in and positive even excited about their jobs, exercise discretionary behavior and are motivated to achieve high levels of performance.

a. engagement
b. employee engagement
c. job challenge
d. autonomy

A

23

Engagement can be regarded as having three overlapping components: EXCEPT

A. motivation
B. commitment
C. organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB)
D. variety

D

24

this takes place when the scope of jobs is broad, job responsibility is high and there is a high work load. It enhances engagement because it creates potential for accomplishment and personal growth.

a. Autonomy
b. Variety
c. Job challenge
d. Feedback

C

25

the freedom, independence and discretion allowed to employees in scheduling their work and determining the procedures for carrying it out. It provides a sense of ownership and control over work outcomes.

a. Autonomy
b. Variety
c. Job challenge
d. Feedback

A

26

Which allow individuals to perform many different activities or use many different skills.

a. Autonomy
b. Variety
c. Job challenge
d. Feedback

B

27

It providing employees with direst and clear information about the effectiveness of their performance.

a. Autonomy
b. Variety
c. Job challenge
d. Feedback

D

28

the existence of compatibility between an individual and a work environment which allows individuals to behave in a manner consistent with how they see or want to see themselves.

a. Burnout
b. Opportunities for development
c. Rewards and recognition
d. Fit

D

29

these make work meaningful because they provide pathways for employee growth and fulfilment.

a. Burnout
b. Opportunities for development
c. Rewards and recognition
d. Fit

B

30

these represent both direct and indirect returns on the personal investment of one’s time in acting out a work role.

a. Burnout
b. Opportunities for development
c. Rewards and recognition
d. Fit

C