Chapter Three Flashcards Preview

Psychology 1100 > Chapter Three > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter Three Deck (33):
1

Neurons

cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to preform information-processing tasks

2

Three parts of a neuron

cell body, dendrites, and axon

3

Myelin Sheath

covers the axon and is an insulating layer or fatty material

4

Glial Cells

support cells found in the nervous system that make up the myelin sheath

5

What functions do glial cells serve

digest parts of dead neutrons, provide physical and nutritional support for neuron, for the myelin to insulate the axon

6

Demyelinating diseases

the myelin sheath deteriorates, slowing the transmission of information from one neuron to another

7

Synapse

Receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain

8

Bipolar cells

type of sensory neuron found in the retinas of the eyes, have a single axon, and small dendrites that feed into a long dendrite that connects to the cell body

9

Motor Neurons

carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement

10

Pyramidal Cells

found in the cerebral cortex

11

Three Major types of Neurons

Sensory, Motor and Interneurons

12

Interneurons

connect sensory neurons, motor neurons and other interneurons

13

Resting Potential

natural electrical charge, the difference in electric charge when the neuron is at rest

14

Action Potential

an electrical signal that is conducted along the length of a neuron's axon to a synapse

15

Terminal buttons

knoblike structures that branch out from an axon
Terminal buttons are filled with tiny vesticles that contain neuro transmitters

16

Neurotransmitters

chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to a receiving neuron's dendrites

17

Receptors

parts of the cell membrane that receive neuro transmitter and either initiate or prevent a new electric signal

18

Acetylcholine

motor control, attention, learning, memory sleeping and dreaming

19

Dopamine

motivation, pleasure and emotional arousal, drug addiction

20

Glutamate

Major excitatory neurotransmitting, it enhances the transmission of info between neurons

21

GABA

Primary Inhibitory neurotransmitter, stop firing of neurons

22

Norepinephrine

heightened awareness of dangers, mood and arousal (mood disorders)

23

Seretonin

regulation of sleep and wakefulness (mood disorders

24

Endorphins

act within the pain pathways (dulling pain)

25

Agonists

drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter

26

Antagonists

Drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter

27

Two divisions of the nervous system

Somatic and Autonomic

28

Somatic Nervous System

A set of nerves that conveys information between voluntary muscles and the central nervous system

29

Autonomic Nervous System

A set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs and glands

30

Two kinds of autonomic nervous system

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

31

Sympathetic Nervous System

A set of nerves that prepares the body for action in challenging or threatening situations

32

Autonomic Nervous System

Helps the body return to a normal rising state

33

Two elements responsible for what we do as humans

The brain and the spinal cord