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Flashcards in Chapter Two Deck (21):
1

Empiricism

How to know- common sense and intuition vs examined conclusions

2

Limits of intuition

relies on our individual experience and knowledge , may not be representative, personal decisions are always good and generalized things are dangerous. Hindsight bias

3

Limitations of being human

coincidence and superstition (we evolved to be this way)

4

What are the critical thinking guidelines?

ask questions, define your terms, examine the evidence, analyze assumptions and biases, avoid emotional reasoning, don't oversimplify, consider other interpretations and tolerate uncertainty

5

The scientific attitude

curiosity, skepticism, and humility

6

curiosity

passion for exploration

7

skepticism

doubting and questioning

8

humility

ability to say I don't know or Im wrong

9

Theory

An idea of how or why something is or works. Cannot be proven right only confirmed rejected or revised

10

hypothesis

A falsifiable prediction made by a theory

11

Instrument

a way to measure the operationally defined variable

12

What does an instrument require

a high degree of validity and reliability

13

Case study

one person over time

14

Naturalistic Observation

observing ing natural environment

15

Survey

questioning a representative, random sample of people

16

Why does correlation not mean causation?

directionality of causation is unclear (which caused which) and the third variable problem, another variable could be the cause of both variables

17

Independent variable

the variable that is manipulate

18

Dependent variable

the effect of the manipulation

19

Descriptive research methods purpose and weaknesses

to observe and record behaviour the weaknesses are that you have no control of the variables

20

Correlation research methods purpose and weaknesses

to detect naturally occurring relationships, to asses how well one variable predicts another but it does not specify cause and effect

21

Scientific method

a procedure for finding truth using empirical evidence