Flashcards in Chapter Two Deck (32)
term used to describe the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in Europe, a period of geographic exploration and adventure as well as intellectual curiosity and individualism
the dominant intellectual movement of the Renaissance, focusing on human life and its accomplishments
scales containing seven tones with an eighth tone duplicating the first an octave higher, but with patterns of whole and half steps different from major and minor scales
long, sustained tone or tones accompanying a melody
(new art), a term used by musical theorists to describe the profound stylistic changes of the French and Italian music in the fourteenth century
Roman Catholic Church texts that remain the same from day to day throughout most of the year: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei
musical representation of specific poetic images
choral music without instrumental accompaniment
Hildegard of Bingen
a nun and an abyss(leader of the nuns), who was the first woman composer from whom a large number of monophonic sacred pieces that have survived
monophonic texture, step by step with narrow range of pitches, no notation
polyphonic texture, contains notation, the melody became more independent
School of Notre Dame
a group of composers working near Notre Dame that developed rhythmic innovations. They used measured rhythm with clearly defined meter. Notation indicated precise rhythms and pitches
the first notable composers known by name; they and their followers are
referred to "The School of Notre Dame."
were used in secular and sacred music, used in Gregorian Chant, patterns of
whole and half notes that are different
Composed music and poems about love (only secular songs), from Southern France, they were people of a low-class background, the notation doesn't indicate rhythm
composed music and poems about love, from Northern France, music contained more variety than Troubadours, they developed fixed & musical form , notation doesn't indicate rhythm
they are as low as prostitutes; they write songs based upon current events; they spread the news by singing
Renaissance Vocal and Instrumental music (How did they start start to separate?)
Vocal music was the dominate music during the middle ages. Instrumental music was subordinate to it. In the early 1500s, instrumental music was combined with vocal music. Instrumental groups performed polyphonic vocal pieces. During the 16th century, instrumental music became emancipated from vocal models. More music became specifically for instruments; mostly intended for dancing.
What are the three social classes of the Middle Ages/Renaissance and how did they differ?
Nobility (Nobles lived in castles, spent their time hunting running households, and feasting), Peasantry (vast majority of population, lived in huts, most were serfs and subject to feudal overlords), and Clergy (religious people who are responsible for religious duties)
Who was Machaut?
a famous French musician and poet. He composed many love songs including, Since I am Forgotten By You. He also composed the Notre Dame Mass.
What years were the Renaissance?
What years were the Middle Ages?
When did the new system of notation begin?
the early 14th century
What made Ars Nova different?
Beats could now be subdivided into two or three. Syncopation became an important rhythmic practice, it was rarely used before.
What cities were the centers of music?
Paris and Venice
What is an Estampie?
one of the earliest surviving forms of instrumental music, it is in triple meter, it has a strong and fast beat, a single melodic line is notated, no instrument is specified
What was the subject of secular songs?
love, the Crusades, dancing songs, and spinning songs