Flashcards in Classical Period Deck (38)
What years encompass the classical period?
“Age of enlightenment”-
philosophers and writers saw this as their time as a turning point in history. They believed in progress, and that reason (not custom or tradition), was the best guide for human conduct. It began to usurp the authority of the social and religious establishment
a style with light colors, curved lines, and graceful ornaments; was superseded by the neoclassical style
attempted to recapture the “noble simplicity and calm grandeur” of ancient Greek and Roman art; emphasised clear structure and firm lines
Characteristics of classical style: rhythms, mood changes, melodies, polyphonic/homophonic?
Rhythm adds variety and is filled with unexpected pauses, syncopations, and frequent changes of note length. Classical music contains a great variety and contrast of mood; the mood will change suddenly or gradually, and may even shift the theme itself. Classical melodies are tuneful and easy to remember; sounds are balanced and symmetrical because it’s made up of two parts of the same length; second phrase ends more conclusively. It is basically homophonic, but the texture is flexible and can shift from homophonic to polyphonic.
Classical composers use a gradual change in dynamics to bring on emotional change; crescendo and decrescendo
Typical classical orchestra contains?
strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion
Political and economic power of classical period?
more people earned higher wages, people could afford better things, middle class had huge influence on music, power moved to middle class and not the nobility
Middle class wanted aristocratic luxuries such as…?
theatre, literature, and music
What was Haydn’s social standing?
a “highly skilled servant”
What is the name of a fragment of a theme?
The character of a minuet can be described as?
it’s dance-like; stately and dignified
Beethoven prefered ___________ instead of the minuet.
How does the scherzo differ from the minuet?
the scherzo is a lot faster
What is the definition of Symphony?
an extended composition, lasting between 20 and 45 minutes, exploiting the expanded range of tone color and dynamics of the classical orchestra
What is the usual order of movements in a classical symphony?
dramatic fast movement, lyrical slow movement, dance-like movement, heroic fast movement
What is a concerto?
a three- movement work for for an instrumental soloist and orchestra, lasts between 20 and 45 minutes, combines soloist’s musicality with orchestra’s wide range of tone colors, first and last movements may contain a cadenza
Define a cadenza
a unaccompanied showpiece for the soloist
What is chamber music and what is considered to be the most important form of it?
it is written for the intimate setting of a room in a home or a palace; every voice is important and they share the same theme; the chamber music group is a team without a conductor; it normally has four movements. The most important form of it is the string quartet.
What is a string quartet?
two violins, a viola, and a cello
What is the biggest difference between a symphony/concerto and chamber music?
A symphony has many players on a part; chamber music has only one player on a part
What family did Haydn work for?
the Esterhazys, the richest and most powerful of the Hungarian nobles
What were Haydn’s duties?
he composed all music requested by his patron, conducted the orchestra, coached singers, and oversaw the instruments and music library
Where did Haydn travel to twice and perform his music?
What is considered to be the most important works which Haydn wrote?
his 104 symphonies and his 68 string quartets
How old was Mozart when he was on tour?
between the ages of 6 and 15
Why did Mozart compose a requiem?
a stranger carrying an anonymous letter commissioned one, and as Mozart grew more sick, he came to believe the requiem was for himself and finished it on his deathbed
Who is Don Giovanni (Don Juan) in Mozart’s opera?
a legendary Spanish lover who is a seductive and ruthless nobleman who will stop at nothing to appease his sexual appetite
What is unique of Mozart’s Symphony No. 40 for its time?
it contained music emotional intensity