Chapter Two: Theory And Research Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter Two: Theory And Research Deck (40)
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1

Hypotheses

Tentative explanations or predictions that can be explanations that can be tested by further research.

2

Mechanistic Model

Model that views human development as a series of predictable responses to stimuli.

3

Organismic Model

Model that views human development as internally initiated by an active organism and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages.

4

Quantitative Change

Changes in number or amount

5

Qualitative Change

Discontinuous changes in kind, structure, and organization.

6

Psychoanalytic Development

View of human development as shaped by unconscious forces that motivate human behavior.

7

Psychosexual Development

An unvarying sequence of stages of childhood personality development in which gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus to the genitals. (Freud's theory)

8

Psychosocial development

The socially and culturally influenced process of development of the ego, or self. (Erikson's eight stage theory)

9

Learning Perspective

View of human development that holds that changes in behavior result from experience of from adaptation to the environment.

10

Behaviorism

Learning theory that emphasizes the predictable role of the environment in causing observable behavior.

11

Classical Conditioning

Learning based on associating a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a response with another stimulus that does elicit the response.

12

Operant Conditioning

Learning based on association of behavior with its consequences.

13

Reinforcement

The process by which a behavior is strengthened, increasing the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.

14

Punishment

The process by which a behavior is weakened, decreasing the likelihood of repetition.

15

Social Learning Theory (social cognitive theory)

Behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models.

16

Reciprocal Determination

Bandura's term for bidirectional forces that affect development.

17

Observational Learning

Learning through watching the behavior of others.

18

Self-efficacy

Sense of one's capability to master challenges and achieve goals.

19

Cognitive Perspective

View that thought processes are central to development.

20

Cognitive-stage Theory

Plaget's theory that children's cognitive development advances in a series of four stages involving qualitatively distinct types of mental operations.

21

Organization (plaget)

The creation of categories or systems of knowledge.

22

Schemes

Organized patterns of thought and behavior.

23

Assimilation

Incorporation of new information into an existing cognitive structure.

24

Sociocultural Theory

Vygotskys's theory of how contextual factors affect children development.

25

Zone of Proximal Development

Vygotsky's term for the difference between what a child can do alone and what the child can do with help.

26

Scaffolding

Temporary support to help a child master a task.

27

Information-processing Approach

Observing and analyzing the mental processes involved in perceiving and handling information.

28

Contextual Perspective

View of human development that sees the individual as inseparable from the social context.

29

Bioecological Theory

Bronfrenbrenner's approach to understanding processes and contexts of human development that identifies five levels of environmental influence.

30

Sociobiological/evolutionary Perspective

Focuses on evolutionary and biological based instead of behavior.