Flashcards in Chapter Two: Theory And Research Deck (40)
Tentative explanations or predictions that can be explanations that can be tested by further research.
Model that views human development as a series of predictable responses to stimuli.
Model that views human development as internally initiated by an active organism and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages.
Changes in number or amount
Discontinuous changes in kind, structure, and organization.
View of human development as shaped by unconscious forces that motivate human behavior.
An unvarying sequence of stages of childhood personality development in which gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus to the genitals. (Freud's theory)
The socially and culturally influenced process of development of the ego, or self. (Erikson's eight stage theory)
View of human development that holds that changes in behavior result from experience of from adaptation to the environment.
Learning theory that emphasizes the predictable role of the environment in causing observable behavior.
Learning based on associating a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a response with another stimulus that does elicit the response.
Learning based on association of behavior with its consequences.
The process by which a behavior is strengthened, increasing the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
The process by which a behavior is weakened, decreasing the likelihood of repetition.
Social Learning Theory (social cognitive theory)
Behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models.
Bandura's term for bidirectional forces that affect development.
Learning through watching the behavior of others.
Sense of one's capability to master challenges and achieve goals.
View that thought processes are central to development.
Plaget's theory that children's cognitive development advances in a series of four stages involving qualitatively distinct types of mental operations.
The creation of categories or systems of knowledge.
Organized patterns of thought and behavior.
Incorporation of new information into an existing cognitive structure.
Vygotskys's theory of how contextual factors affect children development.
Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky's term for the difference between what a child can do alone and what the child can do with help.
Temporary support to help a child master a task.
Observing and analyzing the mental processes involved in perceiving and handling information.
View of human development that sees the individual as inseparable from the social context.
Bronfrenbrenner's approach to understanding processes and contexts of human development that identifies five levels of environmental influence.