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Urinary system includes these organs

Two kidneys
Two ureters
Bladder
Urethra

1

Six functions of kidney

Excretion
Regulation of blood volume and pressure
Regulation of solutes in blood
Regulation of extra cellular fluid pH
Regulation of RBC synthesis
Regulation of vitamin D synthesis

2

Renal capsule

Layer of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds each kidney

3

Renal fascia

Thin layer of connective tissue that surrounds adipose tissue and helps anchor kidney

4

Renal sinus

Hilum enters. Cavity filled with adipose and connective tissue

5

The kidneys are organized into two major regions:

Outer cortex and inner medulla surrounding renal sinus

6

Medullary Rays

Extend from renal pyramids into the cortex

7

Renal columns

Cortical tissue that projects between renal pyramids

8

Renal papillae

Tips of pyramids that point toward the renal sinus

9

Minor calyces

Funnel shaped chambers into which the renal papillae extend

10

Major calyces

Minor calyces of several pyramids merge to form larger funnels.

11

Renal pelvis

Major calyces converge to form an enlarged chamber (renal pelvis) which is surrounded by the renal sinus

12

Ureter (structure)

Renal pelvis narrows into a small diameter tube (ureter)

13

Four basic components of a nephron

Renal corpuscle
Proximal convoluted tube
Loop of henle
Distal convoluted tubule

14

Papillary duct

Near tip of renal papilla, several collecting ducts merge into a larger diameter tubule (papillary duct).

15

Parts in the cortex

Renal corpuscles
Proximal convoluted tubule
Distal convoluted tubule

16

Parts in the medulla

Collecting ducts
Parts of loops of henle
Papillary ducts

17

Juxtamedullary nephrons

Renal corpuscles lie near medulla. They have long loops of henle

18

Cortical nephrons

Loops of Henle are shorter

19

What is in the renal corpuscle

Bowman capsule
Glomerulus

Filtration unit of nephron

20

Bowman capsule layers

Parietal layer
Visceral layer

* visceral is made of podocytes

21

Podocytes

Wrap around glomerular capillaries

22

Filtration slits

Between the cell processes of podocytes that make up visceral layer of bowman capsule

23

Layers that make up filtration membrane

Capillary endothelium, basement membrane, podocytes

24

Juxtaglomerular cells

Where afferent arterioles enters renal capsule (smooth muscle)

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Macula densa

Specialized tubule cells

26

Juxtaglomerular apparatus

Secretes renin. Important in filtrate formation and BP

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Loop of henle

Continuation of the proximal convoluted tubule

28

Pathway of filtrate

Glomerulus
Bowman capsule
Proximal convoluted tubule
Loop of henle
Distal convoluted tubule
Collecting duct

29

Renal artery

Branches off the abdominal aorta and enters renal sinus