Chapters 1-5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 1-5 Deck (65):

Behaviour (generally)

anything a person says or does


Behaviour (technically)

any muscular, glandular, electrical activity of an organism


3 synonyms for behaviour



How do people use general terms such as intelligence/attitude/personality?

use these general terms to refer to causes of behaviour

eg. Jim does well in practice because he has a good attitude


Behavioural perspective of such traditional terms (intelligence/personality/attitude)

Summary labels of behaviour, not as some thing within us that causes behaviour

eg. John is always last because he is lazy


Behavioural sports psych

involves the use of behaviour analysis principles and techniques to enhance the performance and satisfaction of athletes and others associated with sports


3 synonyms for stimulus (when stimulus precedes and influences behaviour)




belief, thought, expectancy, attitude


What assumptions does the author make concerning cognitions?

cognitions are assumed to be covert behaviours and it is assumed that the behavioural principles/techniques that apply to overt behaviours are also applicable to covert behaviours


3 reasons that behavioural sport psych researchers use single-subject research designs

1. require assessment of indiv athletic performance across several practices and/or competitions- useful info for athletes
2. few participants needed, sooner or later all participant experience the intervention (no control groups)


3 questions social validity address

1. what do athletes (coaches, fam) think about goals of the intervention?
2. What do they thing about the procedures suggested by the consultant?
3. What do they think about the results produced by those procedures?


Behavioural assessment

concerned with:
identifying and describing target behaviour
identifying possible causes of the behaviour
selecting approp treatment strategy to modify behaviour
evaluating treatment outcome


4 misconceptions people have about sports psych

1. getting psyched up for competitions does not always lead to competitive improvement, some need to relax
2. sports psych alone cant make athlete a super athlete, need extensive prep in 4 areas (physical, technical, tactical, psychological)
3. sports psychologists dont only consult with athletes at competitions, but also help improve performance in all aspects of prac and comp
4. mental prep needs more than sports psych, needs practice


4 main areas of athletic prep

1. Physical= must be in excellent physical condition
2. Technical= tech skills must be correct, highly practiced, second nature
3. Tactical= game plan for dealing with certain opponents etc.
4. Psychological= mental prep


4 possible causes of slumps

1. Physical cause
2. Change in athlete's technique
3. Changes in equipment used
4. Inadequate mental prep


6 objective dimensions for describing behaviour`

1. Topography (form)
2. Frequency (rate)
3. Duration
4. Intensity (force)
5. Stimulus Control
6. Latency (Reaction time)


2 reasons for being specific in identification of target behaviours?

1. help ensure the reliability of detecting improvements in the behaviour
2. increase the likelihood that the treatment program will be applied consistently


3 minimal phases of behavioural treatment program

1. Baseline phase
2. Treatment phase
3. Follow-up Phase


Baseline phase

Baseline= target behaviour assessed in order to determine its level prior to introduction of the intervention

eg. coach Keedwell obtained baseline of # of missed turns and unscheduled stops by swimmers


Treatment phase

involves the period of time after the initial baseline assessment during which you intervene in various ways to help the athlete


Follow-up phase

used to determine whether the improvements achieved during treatment are maintained after the termination of program


Unconditioned reflex

stimulus-response sequence in which a stimulus elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning

eg. blinking when ball flies at face
eg. sweating while running around field


Conditioned reflex

stimulus-response sequence in which a stimulus elicits a response because the stimulus was paired with a different stimulus that elicited that response

eg. conditioned reflex in Susan (figure skater) was the fear that was paired with the take off position of the difficult jump


2 names for Respondent conditioning



Procedure of Respondent conditioning

pairing neutral stimulus (NS) with an unconditioned stimulus (US)
elicits unconditioned response (UR)


Result of Respondent conditioning

Ns becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS)
elicits conditioned response (CR)


Diagram Susan's example of counterconditioning

CS= falling while approaching take off position for double axel
CR= fear

Practiced deep breathing exercise before practice and said "r-e-l-a-x" to self during exhale, deep breathe before jumps 5 times until feeling of relax replaced fear CR



neutral stimulus



unconditioned stimulus



unconditioned response



conditioned stimulus



conditioned response


5 variables that influence development in conditioned reflex

1. greater the # of a CS with a US- greater the ability of the CS to elicit the CR, until the max strength of the condition reflex has been reached
2. stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedes the US by just a second, rather than by a longer time or after
3. CS acquires greater ability to elicit CR if CS always paired with given US
4. when several NS precede US, the stimulus that is most consistently associated with the Us is the most likely to be a strong CS
5. Respondent conditioning will develop more quickly /strongly when CS or US or both are intense


Procedure/result of positive reinforcement

Procedure: presentation of reinforcer immediately after behaviour
Result: strengthened behaviour


Conditioned reinforcer

reinforcer that reinforces stimuli that were not originally reinforced and need reinforcing value through appropriate pairings with other reinforcers

eg. scoring a goal in hockey
eg. winning a race


Natural reinforcer

immediately follows behaviour in the normal course of everyday life

eg. when a goalie does not let any goals in the net, which is reinforced by winning the period/game


Deliberately programmed reinforcer

when reinforcer is deliberately manipulated in order to change behaviour

eg. when coach pats an athlete on the back for hitting a home run


2 diff between the effects of continuous v. intermittent reinforcement

1. indiv are more likely to work much more consistently on certain intermittent schedules of reinforcement than on continuous reinforcement
2. behaviour that has been reinforced intermittently is likely to take much longer to extinguish than behaviour that has been reinforced continously


Fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement

reinforcement that occurs after a fixed # of a certain response is emitted

eg. baseball player has to hit 5 balls into outfield before allowed to pitch
eg. gymnast gets free time after doing practice routine 3 times


Variable interval schedule (with a limited hold)

requires only one response, rather than certain number
but that response must occur at an unpredictable period of time
eg. basketball coach making players do cardio workouts- run as hard as can until he blows the whistle, repeated. if you are not running fast enough when the coach blows the whistle to stop, coach will add a minute to the cardio sprints later. The whistle is unpredictable and athletes do not know when he is going to blow it, have to run hard the whole time.


Avoidance conditioning

behaviours learnt which prevent unpleasant events from occurring at all

eg. basketball player learns how to take foul shoots without jumping to avoid jumping over the line


3 differences between operant and respondent behaviour

1. result of extinction- of OB is that the response is less likely to occur, but in RC the CS loses ability to elicit CR
2. types of behaviour- type of behaviour for OB is referred to as voluntary behaviour and RB is referred to as reflexive or involuntary
3. muscles involved- OB is skeletal muscles and RB is smooth muscles, glands involved to control GI tract and blood vessels


Operant extinction

Procedure: response is followed by reinforcer
Result: response is more likely to occur


Respondent extinction

Procedure: pairing of NS with an eliciting stimulus prior to a response
Result: response is more likely to occur to the NS, now called a CS


ABC analysis

during an involuntary respondent behaviour, 3 aspects control the behaviour:
1. Antecedent Stimuli
2. Voluntary operant Behaviour
3. controlled by Consequences


Good stimulus control

strong correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and the occurrence of a particular response
when stimulus occurs, response is likely to follow

eg. Stimulus of a goalie going to the left side of the net exerts control over the behaviour of aiming right- whereas if the goalie goes right, that exerts control over the behaviour of aiming left


Discriminate Stimulus (Sd)

If an event has been correlated with the availability of a reinforcer for a particular operant behaviour, than that event is called a Sd

eg. the goalie going left is the Sd- a cue for the kicker to kick right


Extinction Stimulus (Se)

If an event has been correlated with an extinction trials for a particular operant behaviour, then that event is called Se

eg. Goalie going left is the Se for the response of kicking left = it was a cue that aiming left will not pay off


Stimulus discrimination training

procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of an Sd, and extinguishing that response in the presence of an Se

eg. when the soccer player learned to shoot right when the goalie went left and not when he was on the right side of the net- demonstrated stimulus discrimination


Results of Stimulus discrimination training

1. good stimulus control in that the response consistently occurs to the Sd
2. stimulus discrimination in that response occurs to the Sd and not the Se


Stimulus generalization

Procedure: reinforcing response in presence of a stimulus or situation
Result: response becomes more probable not only in that situation but also in the presence of another stimulus

eg. when a basketball player first learns to shoot the ball when its passed to him if he is open, but later shoots the ball everytime its passed to him regardless of if he's open


Latency of behaviour

reaction time between the stimulus and the response

eg. the time between a basketball player seeing a ball and the time it takes to run towards it and grab it



supplemental antecedent stimulus provided to increase the likelihood that a desired behaviour will occur, but that is not the final stimulus that will control the behaviour

eg. swimming coach might model correct arm movements for freestyle stroke, and gradually fade the modelling prompts over trials



when the stimulus gradually changes but the response says the same



statement that a specific behaviour will pay off in a particular situation

eg. the rule in basketball: "keep your dribble low and your hand in a defensive position by the ball when driving up the field, or else the defender will steal the ball"


Partial rule

rule that does not include all three aspects of a rule (antecedent, behaviour and consequence)

eg. the partial rule in basketball: "keep your dribble low", which only includes the behaviour


Contingency learned behaviour

behaviour that has been strengthened or weakened in settings by the direct effects of consequences in those settings

eg. kicking a corner kick- learned the correct angle and technique to kick the ball at from past experience


2 reasons that the rule "I'm going to eat healthier and lose weight" is so difficult to follow

lacks deadline


4 characteristics of rules that are effective in controlling behaviour

1. Have deadlines
2. Address specific behaviour
3. Lead to sizable outcomes
4. Lead to probable outcomes


Outcome goal

goal for results against competitors

eg. basketball player winning team MVP


Performance-standard goal

goals for which an athlete tries to meet a performance standard that is not an outcome goal

eg. basketball player having goal to have 10 assists in the game


Execution/process goal

performing skill in certain ways

eg. goal to keep hands at 90 degree angle when shooting all baskets in a basketball game


2 assumptions to be met for mastery criterion (MC)

1. once athlete has achieved MC, it is likely he or she has learned the skill enough so that later the skill will be performed correctly
2. if the athlete has met a MC during practice, there is high probability that the skill will be executed correctly during a competition


Why is public goal setting likely to be more effective than private?

Public goal provides a public standard against which performance can be evaluated, and that implies social consequences of achieving or not


Meaning of commitment in the context of goal setting

statements of actions by a person setting a goal
imply that the goal is important/will work toward it
recognizing the benefits of doing so

eg. the end goal of a winning a championship- as the athlete may put in extra work in the weight room, discuss with team hoe important each game is to him, recognizes that all his extra effort will result in better team results