Chapters 6-10 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 6-10 Deck (54):

3 main components of the motivation package that Connie applied to improve the practice performance of speed skaters

1. goal-setting (set written weekly goals for # of laps skated and drills performed- use goals to set written daily practice goals for each behaviour)
2. self-monitoring (recorded daily performance in logbooks)
3. performance feedback (evaluated recorded performance)


Performance feedback

consequences of an operant behaviour that can influence two things: influence future instances of that behaviour and future instances of an alternative behaviour


Proprioceptive feedback

performance feedback that is the internal stimulation generated from the movement
internal sensations generated the position/movement of the body in space and by position/movement of parts of the body with respect to the other parts

eg. hockey player learning how to properly grasp the stick- then the coach tells the player to close his eyes and properly grasp the stick without looking after learning how by looking at the stick


External informational feedback

feedback consisting of instructions presented to athlete about skill that was just performed
instructions might identify aspects of the skill performed correctly, aspects that should be performed diff or both

eg. gymnastics coach telling gymnast that she isn't pointing her toes enough while doing her beam routine, and that she needs to point them as much as possible during the routine


2 reasons that public posting of prac performance might be more effective as motivator

1. public posting can stimulate peer interactions to reinforce increase output
2. to serve as important reminder to coaches to provide praise for progress


recruitment of positive feedback

strategy to improve performance that involve an individual emitting desirable behaviour, and then telling someone about it in order to achieve positive feedback

eg. when soccer player takes several good shots at the net and goes to tell coach about progress/success- coach praises him


How do people conceptualize motivation?

as some "thing" within us that causes our actions
Webster's Dictionary defines it as "some inner drive that causes person to act in certain way"

eg. a powerlifter that blames their increased motivation on some internal "thing" causing him to want success even more


2 practical limitations to conceptualizing motivation as internal cause of behaviour

1. influence some coaches to blame athletes for inferior athletic performances, rather than examining the principles and procedures for that changing behaviour, and the enormous amount of data demonstrating that application of those principles can effectively modify behaviour
2. athletes blame themselves for inferior athletic performances, rather than examining potential self-management strategies for improving performance


"to motivate"

to influence individuals to behave invidious ways
implication: motivational strategies are to be found in environmental contingencies concerning behaviour- contingencies can be arranged by the individual to be motivated by others


7 types of antecedents that can be used to motivate athletic behaviour

1. Goals
2. Models
3. Imagery
4. Self-Talk
5. Picture prompts
6. Announcements of friendly competitions
7. Schedule cross training for variety


example of how athlete might use imagery to motivate practice performance

eg. basketball player during scrimmage might use imagery to pretend its the Zone championship game and then he will put 100% into the scrimmage/practice


7 categories of consequences that can motivate participation in sports and improved prac/competitive performance

1. Self-improvement
2. Stimulation of the sense
3. Posted records of progress
4. Enjoying competing
5. Peer approval
6. Use fun practice activities as reinforcers for improvement
7. Escape from peer/parental pressure


is deliberate use of reinforcement by coaches=bribery?

No- deliberate use of reinforcement by coaches is not bribery
Bribery in sports= illegal act, normally $

Reinforcement by coaches during practice is when they offer the athletes 15 mins of extra scrimmage time at the end of practice for trying their best


What does it mean to suggest that extrinsic reinforcement undermines intrinsic motivation?

Extrinsic reinforcers are deliberately manipulated
Intrinsic reinforcers are natural

Extrinsic reinforcers to strengthen behaviour will undermine intrinsic motivation to person that behaviour

eg. if coach gives players points for good performance, then players would be trying to receive points



Conditioned motivating operations

eg. hockey player using imagery to pretend he is at the Stanley Cup and create pressure for his practice game


CMO v Sd

CMO= temporarily changes what you want to aid in motivation and tells you how to get it
Sd= cue that tells you what to do to get what you already want

eg. Sd- goalie going to the right side of the net provides cue to shoot left

eg. CMO-


4 steps that coach might follow to motivate athletes

1. arrange antecedents to prompt motivated behaviour
2. manipulate MO's to maximize effectiveness of reinforcers for motivated behaviour
3. describe the enviromental arrangements and approp state rules prior to prac/comp
4. provide reinforcers following motivated behaviour


How might stimulus generalization have been involved in applications w basketball players?

correct execution of defensive skill called "cutting off baseline" was first rehearsed by players mentally for approx. 15 mins a day
each player required to practice the strategy (conditioning) against 5 imaginary opponents each day, record the times that they practiced the self-talk and mental imagery strategy in a log book, hand in to assistant coach every week
during the remaining games of the season, players correctly executed the defensive strategy- increasing their % of their opportunities and execution

-in relation to stimulus generalization: CS evoked similar responses after it was conditioned


conditioned sensing

bringing some physiologicaly activity associated with one or more of our senses under the control of a previously neutral stimulus

eg. a woman felt extremely nervous when a man walked by her wearing the same cologne as the man that assaulted her days before


mental rehearsal

process of imagining and feeling oneself performing an activity
if performed as recommended by experts- likely to include several types of conditioned sensing


internal imagery

encouraging athletes to feel themselves performing task/skill


external imagery

encouraging athletes to imagine they are watching themselves performing task/skill


5 ways athletes use mental imagery to enhance prac performance

1. Imagery to energize before prac
2. Instant mental replays to learn the feelings of correctly-performed skills
3. Imagery prac sessions away from sport environment
4. Imagery at pray before performing previously-learned skills to increase likelihood of performing successfully
5. Visualiztion to stimulate the comp environment, to promote generalization to competitions


example of athlete using visualization at practices to promote generalization of skill to competitions

eg. first trail that snowboarder goes down in upcoming competition is very narrow and full of trees
-while practicing for competition, boarder imagine himself on that specific trail and imagines having a narrow path to show tricks/skills
-goes through normal pre-trail routine and then practices going down regular trail while imagining it is conditions of competition trail


4 ways athletes might use mental imagery/visualization to enhance competition performance

1. Imagery for emotional control
2. Imagery for mental toughness
3. Mental rehearsal of skill before performing
4. Imagery to tune out distractors


key word

technique words that would serve as Sd's to prompt particular body positions or focus of attention

eg. basketball player hearing the words "arms up" which prompts her to put her arms up and use them as a defensive mechanism


Example of how athlete might use key words to transfer skill to competition

eg. basketball player consistently rehearsed self talk- said "head up" to self during practices while dribbling to watch for open players or defenders. then in competitions, said to herself "head up"


desired mood words

words that elicit emotional feelings which have been associated with past successful performance

eg. to increase the level of intensity whenever a play starts, football player says the following mood words to self: "be aggressive" "kick ass" "play hard" "maximum intensity"


Nideffer's 4 major categories of stimulus control of athletic performance

1. broad external stimulus control
2. narrow external stimulus control
3. broad internal stimulus control
4. narrow internal stimulus control


Broad external stimulus control

in some athletic situations, athlete must attend to a number of different external cues in a short period of time

eg. basketball point guard trying to pick out shooting guard while at the same time being aware of defenders


Narrow external stimulus control

an athletic skill under the stimulus control of a specific external stimulus and the ability of the athlete to ignore a variety of potential distracting cues

eg. batter focusing on baseball when it leaves pitcher's hand until it arrives at the plate


Broad internal stimulus control

instances of thinking about complex problems in the absence of any obvious external Sd's

eg. basketball coach during time out might mentally review the diff defensive formations of the opponents


Narrow internal stimulus control

situations where an athletic skill is under the control of a specific internal cue

eg. golfer might focus on achieving particular kinaesthetic sensation or feeling as a prompt for driving a perfect drive


3 components of a strategy used with professional hockey players to help them "stay in the game"

1. Relax
2. Regroup (eg. general self talk, "get ready for next shift")
3. Refocus (eg. review key words to refocus, "shoot quick")


5 ways athletes might use self-talk to enhance their performance in competitions

1. use of key words to transfer that skill from prac to competitions
2. mood words to control feelings of desired emotions
3. self talk for shifting attention to diff cues
4. self talk for refocusing during a break in action
5. self talk to stop negative thoughts and emotions


3 important characteristics of our emotions, and type of conditioning involved in each

1. reaction that one feels inside during experiencing of that emotion (e.g.. butterflies)
2. the way that one learns to outwardly express an emotion (eg. talking fast when nervous)
3. how one becomes aware of and describes one's emotions (eg. "I'm mad")


unconditioned reflexes that appear to characterize the emotions of fear, anger, joy

Fear: sudden catching of breath, clutching or grasping response, crying, screaming
Anger: crying, screaming, body stiffening, temperature rising
Joy: smiling, gurgling, cooing


US, UR, CS, CR with Little Albert

US= loud noise
UR= crying

CS= rat
CR= crying


Identify general cause of: happy, anger, anxiety, relief

Happy= presentation of reinforcers
eg. winning ball game and receiving praise from coach

Anger= withholding/withdrawl of reinforcers
eg. missing basketball shot

Anxiety= encountering aggressive stimuli
eg. receiving hard hit in hockey against the boards, and experiencing anxiety now everytime approach the boards

Relief= withdrawal of aversive or punishing events
eg. winning baseball game after months of practicing


4 effects of excessive nervousness/tension and why each might interfere with athletic performance at comp

1. Exposure to threat causes psych changes to deal with the treat. Nervous or fearful athlete is less likely to attend to important external cues
2. Consumes enegery in the process of all psych changes. Nervous runner won't be able to compete in 200m race fast enough
3. Causes adrenal gland to secrete adrenalin, cause athlete to rush skilled routine. Nervous hockey player may have less powerful slap shot
4. Adds additional stimuli to comp environment that were not likely present in prac environment. Interferes with stimulus generalization of skill from prac to comp


Deep-center breathing

martial arts procedure that emphasizes thought control, way of breathing and muscle relax


Progressive muscle relaxation

involves alternatively tensing and relaxing various muscle groups while attending closely to sensations felt


Strategies used to minimize likelihood of "choking"

1. focusing on what you can control, not what you cannot
2. mentally review past instances of successful performance
3. focus on process of competing, not outcomes
4. use cognitive reappraisal to view situation as an opportunity
5. deep centre breathing
6. humour
7. muscle relaxation


4 steps that have characterized successful anger management programs

1. Identify anger-causing situations
2. Teach substitute behaviours to compete with anger
3. Practice the sub behaviours using imagery/simulations/role playing
4. Use coping skills in competitive situations with monitoring, supportive contingencies


Task analysis

breaking a skill into its component parts so that it can be taught effectively, and improvements can be accurately monitored


2 strategies for ensuring athletes understand what coach wants them to do

1. Asking questions= after explaining drill, coach should check the athlete's knowledge by asking specific questions. If wrong answers obtained, modelling/instruction repeated

2. Role-playing= allows athletes to concentrate solely on practicing correct form or movements of skill without worrying about end result. If athlete is performing incorrectly, coach should provide immediate corrective feedback and repeat.


2 types of natural reinforcers

1. Sensory feedback= inherent in performance of task, reward involves visual/tactile/auditory sensations that come from performing task.
eg. swoosh of ball net after shot that goes in

2. Natural reaction of others
eg. high five


2 reasons for encouraging coaches to capitalize on natural reinforcers

1. more that beginners experience natural reinforcers for skill= greater likelihood they will practice skill on their own because reinforcers will continue
2. important tactic for programming generalization of skill from practices to competitions and for maintaining in LR


Prescriptive praise

when coach identifies aspect of athlete's performance that was desirable or that indicated improvement
eg. basketball coach saying "Nice form on foul shot. You used a good 90 degree angle"


Regular/non-prescriptive praise

simple positive comment that acknowledges when athlete does good job
eg. "nice work Jim!"



reinforcement of successive approximations of or increasingly close attempts at correct execution. One approximation at a time, until desired response occurs

eg. basketball player learning to box out- start with properly locating defender when ball is being shot, and coach praises when done. Over next few trials, coach might only praise player when he seals his opponent with hips. Finally coach might withhold praise until the player locates defender, seals with his hips and grabs rebound.


Stimulus control

degree of correlation between a stimulus and a behaviour
good stimulus control refers to a strong correlation between occurrence of particular stimulus and occurrence of particular behaviour
*when stimulus occurs, response likely to follow

eg. being able to properly D a defender in ball, results in the opposing team not scoring


3 reasons why a coach should continue to dispense deliberately programmed reinforcers, even after athlete's skills appear to have come under control of natural reinforcers

1. reinforcers from coach help to sustain effort and performance during repetitive practices
2. competitive situations contain punishers as well as natural rewards
3. athlete rarely reaches point where there is nothing left to learn


6 characteristics of effective behavioural coaching

1. emphasizes measurement of athlete performance, and use of such measures as primary means for evaluating effectiveness of teaching strategies
2. recognizes clear distinction between developing and maintaining behaviour, and positive behavioural procedures available for accomplishing both
3. encourages coach to help athletes improve as measured against own previous performance, opposed to compared to others
4. emphasizes that coach use behaviour mod procedures that have been experimentally demonstrated to be effective
5. behaviour mod techniques also applied to help coach change his behaviour
6. coaches encouraged to use social avidity assessments to ensure athletes/parents involves are satisfied with target behaviours identified, procedures used, and results