Chapters 1 & 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 1 & 2 Deck (61):
1

Where did the Roman Empire extend in the second century CE?

Euphrates River in the east, Britain in the West, everywhere in Europe, and North Africa

2

Why did everyone have to know at least a little Latin in the earliest centuries?

Because the Romans were conquering almost everything

3

When did the Germanic (more specifically the Anglo-Saxon) tribe become the dominant political and linguistic power in Europe?

After they invaded the southern parts of Britain in 449 CE. Latin had all but disappeared as a spoken language

4

When were the Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity? Why is this important?

597 CE. Latin was reintroduced as the language of the Church

5

What language derived from the Anglo-Saxons at the time Latin became the language of the Church?

Old English (i.e. Beowulf)

6

What date did William the Conquerer become the King of England and Normandy? Who did he defeat?

1066 CE. He defeated Harold.

7

What was the new class William brought in with his reign?

French-speaking Normans

8

What was the language of the government for 150 years after 1066 CE?

French

9

Deterioration between France and England caused English to become increasingly an expression of nationalism. Because of this, what languages started to mix together to form a newer form of English? What was this newly evolved language called?

French, Latin based language or directly Latin. It was called Middle English

10

What was the single greatest influence on the formation of Modern English?

The printing press

11

What happened to the Modern English language because of the printing press?

The standardization of spelling, usage, and pronunciation, growth of literacy, increased the number of schools

12

Vernacular

The language that is native to a country, but is also a term to describe ordinary, or everyday, language as opposed to literary language and expression

13

Englishmen though that adding new vocabulary made them sound more sophisticated. What languages did they use?

These new vocabulary words would also contain mostly Latin and Greek

14

Lexicography

The practice of compiling dictionaries

15

What was the first permanent English-speaking settlement?

Jamestown, Virginia 1607

16

Creole

A language that has been formed by the mixing of two or more "parent" languages and that as become the first language of a community.

17

Anglicized

Made to conform to specific English forms and patterns

18

Etymology

The study of the history of a particular word; the derivation or origin of a word

19

Lexicon

A dictionary

20

Linguistics

The science of language, including history, formation, and structures of languages

21

Orthography

Correct spelling

22

Philolgy

The study of written records; linguistics

23

Phonology

The science of speech sounds, speech elements, and pronunciation

24

Sematics

The study of linguistic meaning and form

25

Syntax

The rules or patterns of the formation of sentences

26

Branches of the Indo-European family

Indic, Iranian, Italic, Hellenic, Germanic, Batlo-Slavonic, Celtic

27

What are the languages that derive from Indic?

Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Romany, Sinhalese, Urdu, Sanskrit

28

What are the languages that derive from Iranian?

Baluchi, Kurdish, Pashto, Farsi (Persian). Avestan

29

What are the languages that derive from Hellenic?

Ancient Greek > Medieval Greek > Modern Greek

30

What are the languages that derive from Germanic?

German, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Flemish, Yiddish, Icelandic, Dutch, Afrikaans
Anglo-Saxon (Old English) > Middle English > English

31

What are the languages that derive from Balto-Slavonic?

Russian, Belorussian, Latvia, Lithuanian, Czech, Polish, Slovak, Slovene

32

What are the languages that derive from Celtic?

Breton, Gaelic, Irish, Scots, Welsh, Mans, Cornish

33

lingua franca

any language that is used as a means of communications among speakers of different languages that are mutually incomprehensible

34

Where are most languages belonging the Sino-Tibetan branch spoken?

China

35

How many varieties of Chinese are there? And how are they all united?

8. By a common writing system.

36

There are 300 languages in the Tibeto-Buman branch, spoken in parts of where?

Burma, Tibet, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos

37

There are over 250 languages Afro-Asiatic (Hamito-Semetic). Where are they spoken?

North Africa, Southwest Asia, Amharic, Hausa

38

What are the major branches of the Human Languages?

Sino-Tibetan, Afro-Asiatic, Austro-Asiatic Dravidian, Niger-Congo, Uralic, Altaic, Caucasian, and North and South American Languages

39

What do the Semitic languages include?

Arabic, Hebrew, and languages of the Ancient Near East

40

What is the largest branch of the Austro-Asiatic branch? Where is it mostly spoken?

Mount-Kemr. Vietnam, Laos, Combodia, and parts of Burma and Malayaisa

41

Where are the three branches of Austro-Asiatic spread across?

Southeast Asia

42

Dravidian is composed of more than 70 languages and is spoken by 23 million people. Where is it spoken?

Throughout Southern India, Eastern India and Southern and Eastern regions of Africa.

43

What is the most diffused language of Dravidian? Where is it spoken?

Tamil. There are speakers in India, Pakistan, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Indian and South Pacific Oceans

44

There are 1,000 to 3,000 languages spoken in Africa by 4 million people. Niger-Congo encompasses about a thousand languages and several thousand dialects. Within this family, there are approximately 700 languages belonging to what branch? What type of language does it include? Where is it spoken?

Benue-Congo. Bantu languages are spoken in Swahili, Rwanda, Khongo, Xhosa, and Zulu

45

What two languages are often used as lingua franca throughout Africa?

Swahili and Arabic

46

What and where are the two branches of the Uralic language spoken in?

Fino-Urgic is spoken throghout Central and Northern Europe and Samoydic is spoken in Siberia and the Arctic

47

What are the languages of Uralic? (Fino-Urgic)

Finnish, Estonian, Hungarian, Lapp

48

Where is the geographic distribution of Altaic?

Balken Peninsula and Central Asia

49

What are the 3 groups from which 40 languages of the Altaic branch are divided into?

Turkic, Mongolian, Manchu

50

The region of the Caucus Mounts between the Capsian and Black seas contains the highest concentration of languages in the world. More than 20 different languages are spoken there, especially what language? What language is the vocabulary heavily influenced by?

Georgian. Russian

51

When Europeans arrived, there were 300 languages spoken by the indigenous inhabitants of North America. Half of these have disappeared leaving fewer than 300, 000 speakers. There are approximately 11 million speakers of the Amerindians, where? What is Quecha the official language of?

South and Central America. Quecha was the official language of the Incas.

52

Anglo-Saxon is a synonym for which language?

Old English

53

What event introduced a Latin based vocabulary into English?

The Roman Occupation of Britain (First Century - 410 CE)

54

Who wrote the Canterbury Tales? To which period of English does it belong?

Geoffrey Chaucer. The Anglo Saxon and Old English Period

55

List the periods of english from the first century till now?

The Roman Occupation of Britain
The Anglo-Saxon and Old English
Middle English
Modern English
American English
Westward Expansion
Since the Civil War

56

Who was Dr. Samuel Johnson?

Wrote "A Dictionary of the English Language" in 1755

57

Who was James Murray?

He wrote the "Oxford English dictionary"

58

Who was Noah Webster?

He wrote "An American Dictionary of the English Language" in 1838

59

What languages derived from Italic?

Latin>
French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian

60

appetite

Latin verb
appeto

61

apple

Old English: apricock
Portuguese: albricoque
Arabic: al birquq
Latin: praecoquum