Chapters 16 and 17 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 16 and 17 Deck (172):
1

augeo-augere-auctum

enlarge;increase

2

auctor, auctoris

one who increases

3

drama (greek)

doing

4

historia (greek)

inquiry

5

hymnos (greek)

song in praise of deity

6

litera, litterae

letter;literature

7

paean (greek)

song of thanksgiving to Apollo

8

comos (greek)

revel; merry-making

9

comoedia (greek)

revel-song; comedy

10

catharsis (greek)

cleansing; pruification

11

choreuo (greek)

dance in a circle

12

character (greek)

mark, stamp;special type

13

clamo-clamare-calamatum

shout, call out

14

criticon (greek)

able to judge

15

hypocrites (greek)

actor

16

crisis (greek)

decision; trial; dispute

17

histrio, histrionis

actor

18

mimesis (greek)

representation; imitation

19

orchestra (greek)

place where the chorus danced

20

plaudo-plaudere-plausum

clap, strike

21

-plodo, -plodere, -plosum

clap, strike

22

protagonis (greek)

leading actor

23

scene (greek)

tent;stage wall;stage backdrop

24

theaomai (greek)

look at, see

25

theatron (greek)

theater

26

tragoedia (greek)

literally, goat-song;tragedy

27

musice (greek)

belonging to the Muses

28

sono-sonare-sonitum

sound

29

melodia (greek)

song

30

canot-cantare-cantatum

sing

31

organon (greek)

instrument

32

stringo-stringere-strictum

draw tight, bind; cut off

33

percutio-percutere-percussum

strike

34

cornu, cornus

horn

35

cymbalon (greek)

cymbal

36

tympanon (greek)

drum

37

cithara (greek)

lyre, lute

38

tuba, tubae

trumpet

39

agon (greek)

contest

40

arena, arenae

san; arena, place for contests

41

athlos (greek)

contest

42

discos (greek)

plate, disc

43

dromos (greek)

running

44

gladius, gladii

sword

45

gymnazo (greek)

exercise naked; train

46

peto-petere-petitum

seek, ask; strive for

47

prestigiae, prestigiarum

delusion, deception

48

pugno-pugnare-pugnatum

fight

49

stadion (greek)

race course

50

sthenos (greek)

strength

51

testor-testari-testatum

show; prove; witness

52

ambitio, ambitionis

going around; canvassing for votes; desire for office

53

cado-cadere-casum

fall

54

-cido, -cidere, -cisum

fall

55

panis, panis

bread

56

votum, voti

vow, oath

57

effervesco-effervescere

being to boil, foam, bubble

58

adolesco-adolescere-adultum

grow up

59

coalesco-coalescere-coalitum

grow together, become one

60

obsolesco-obsolescere-obsoletum

wear out, decay; go out of use

61

Zeus

ruler of god and mortals

62

Jupiter (Jove)

ruler of god and mortals

63

Hera

wife and consort of Zeus (Jove); patron of marriage and the family

64

Juno

wife and consort of Zeus (Jove); patron of marriage and the family

65

Poseidon

ruler of the sea

66

Neptune

ruler of the sea

67

Demeter

goddess of grain and fertility

68

Ceres

goddess of grain and fertility

69

Athene

goddess of wisdom; patron of arts and crafts; protector of heroes

70

Minerva

goddess of wisdom; patron of arts and crafts; protector of heroes

71

Artemis

goddess of the hunt; protector of wild animals; gaurdian of children

72

Diana

goddess of the hunt; protector of wild animals; gaurdian of children

73

Ares

god of war and destruction

74

Mars

god of war and destruction

75

Aphrodite

goddess of sexual passion and fertility

76

Venus

goddess of sexual passion and fertility

77

Hades, Plutus

god of the underworld

78

Saturnus, Pluto

god of the underworld

79

Hermes

messenger of the gods

80

Mercury

messenger of the gods

81

Hephaestus

blacksmith and fire god

82

Vulcan

blacksmith and fire god

83

Apollo

god of light and inspiration; patron of the arts

84

Titans

race of giants who ruled the world before Zeus

85

Dionysus (Bacchus)

god of wine and flowing fertility, who inspired madness in his followers

86

Pan

god of shepherds and flocks, often associated with Dionysus

87

Nemesis

goddess of retribution

88

Mount Olympus

residence of many of the Greek gods, who were thus referred to as the Olympians

89

Styx

the main river in the underworld, and also its boundary line. The ancient Greeks believed that in order to enter the realm of Hades, one had to be ferried across the Styx by the boatman Charon, at the cost of one obol; thus, the dead were buried with a coin in their mouths.

90

Lethe

river in the underworld whose waters caused the dead to forget their pas lives.

91

legarthy

the state of mental apathy and physical drowsiness

92

Elysium or Elysian Fields

the dwelling place of those few fortunate mortals who had been granted eternal conscious life and happiness by the gods

93

Augean Stables

the stables of King Augeas were so filthy that the Greek hero Hercules, as one of his twelve labors, had to divert two rivers in order to cleanse them in a single day

94

Labyrinth

a maze built on Crete for King Minos by the famed Greek architect Daedalus in order to imprison the Minotaur, a man-eating creature that was half-bull and half-human

95

Cerberus

three-headed dog that guarded the entrance to the Underworld

96

Chimera

a fire-breathing monster that had the head of a lion, the torso of a goat, and the tail of a sank

97

chimerical

describes something that is wildly fanciful and unrealistic

98

Gryphon or Griffin

a mythical creature with the head and wings of an eagle and body of a lion

99

Harpies

bird-like women who tormented a number of individuals in Greek myth by snatching away their food as they tried to eat

100

Medusa

one of the three monstrous Gorgons, she had hair of snakes, and her glance turned men to stone

101

Phoenix

a fabulous bird of great beauty, said to live for 500 years, after which it would immolate itself on a pyre, and then rise up, once again, from the ashes

102

Sirens

bird-like women who lured sailors to their deaths by singing sweet and entrancing melodies while sitting on the treacherous rocks that rose up from the sea

103

Sphinx

a winged female monster who would eat young men who could not answer her riddle, "What walks on four legs in the morning, two legs in the afternoon, and three legs in the evening?" She committed suicide when Oedipus gave the correct answer; man.

104

Sphinx as a noun

may be used to describe anyone who gives responses that are difficult to interpret

105

The Amazons

The Amazons were said to be a race of warrior women who lived without men and who excelled in those activities such as hunting, fighting, normally considered to belong to the male sphere.

106

Amazon

now used to described a tall and physically powerful woman

107

Atlas

Atlas was a Titan who was condemned by the victorious Zeus to hold the sky on his shoulders. He gives his name to any bound collection of maps or charts.

108

The Golden Fleece

The Greek hero Jason was sent on a meant-to-be fatal quest to retrieve the golden fleece of a ram. The fleece was guarded by a fire-breathing dragon that never slept; but Jason, with the help of the witch Medusa, was able to steal the skin and escape

109

King Midas and the Golden Torch

Because he had done a kindness to the god Dionysus, Midas was granted any wish he might desire. Requesting that everything he touch turn to gold, he was at first delighted with his good fortune, but soon bedded the god to take back his gift. He had turned his daughter into gold and he was starving to death as well. Although the gift of the golden torch proved to be almost disastrous for Midas, we now use the term in a positive way.

110

The Labors of Hercules

Hercules (or as the Greeks called him, Hercales) was the greatest of all the ancient mythological heroes. In order to gain immortal fame, he had to perform twelve death defying labors, including a journey to the Underworld

111

Pandora's Box

Pandora, the first woman, who was created by the gods to revenge for Prometheus's theft of fire, was given a box containing all the evils of the world. Instructed to not open, she disobeyed and released every kind of suffering into the world. Only Blind Hope remained inside. The phrase is used today to mean a source of unforeseen trouble or problem.

112

Procrustes

Procrustes was said to have entertained his guests by inviting them to spend the night. If they did not fit exactly into the bed he offered, he would stretch them on a rack or lop off their head to ensure a perfect nights sleep.

113

procrustean

an adjective that is sued to describe arbitrary and violent means of insuring conformity

114

Prometheus

A Titan, Prometheus stole fire from the gods because he pitied mankind. In punishment, Zeus had him bound on a rock, where each day an eagle would tear at his liver. Some say that he was freed eventually by the Greek hero, Hercule.

115

promethean

boldly original and creative

116

Proteus

Proteus was a god of the sea who, like the water, could change himself into whatever form he wished.

117

protean

an adjective that means extremely variable or changeable

118

Sisyphus

As punishment for some unspecified crime, Sisyphus was condemned by the gods to forever push a boulder to the top of a hill in the Underworld, only to watch it roll back down again. His name has become synonymous with futility.

119

Tantalus

Tantalus, who either betrayed the secrets of the gods or attempted to trick them into eating human flesh, was punished in the Underworld. He was forced to stand in a pool up to his chin; when he bent down to quench his overwhelming thirst, the water evaporated. Above his head hung bunches of fruit; but when he reached up to pick them, they were beyond his grasp.

120

tantalizing

an adjective that describes a tormenting desire for something that is unattainable

121

Apple of Discord

Eris, the goddess of Strife, angered at not being invited to the wedding of the mortal Peleus and the sea goddess Thetis, threw a golden apple inscribed with the words "to the fairest" among the divine guests. Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite all laid claim and appealed to Zeus to choose among them

122

The Judgement of Pairs

Zeus, wisely deciding not to get involved, chose Paris, a young Trojan prince, to judge the beauty contest among the goddesses. Each offered him a bribe, but Paris selected Aphrodite because she promised him Helen.

123

Helen

Helen may have been Paris's prize, but unfortunately, she was married to Menelaus, a Greek king. It was the kidnapping of Helen, who had a face "that launched a thousand ships," that led to the outbreak of the war.

124

Achilles

The son of Peleus and Thetis, Achilles was the greatest of the Greek heroes to fight in Troy. According to one tradition, his mother dipped him in the river Styx in order to make his body invulnerable. Unfortunately, she was holding him by his heel, which was then unprotected against a fatal wound.

125

Achilles heel

a term used to describe a point of emotional or physical vulnerability

126

Myrmidons

The Myrmidons were the loyal group of Achilles's followers who accompanied him to Troy. The name is now applied to anyone who blindly follows the commands of his leader.

127

Hector

In the Illiad, Hector is the gallant leader of the Trojan forces; but later traditions depicted him as a domineering bully. Thus, we have the verb hector, which means to act or speak in an overbearing way.

128

Cassandra

The daughter of the kind of Troy, Cassandra had been given a gift of prophecy by Apollo, who had hoped to win her love. When she spurned him, the god caused her not be believed. She foresaw the destruction of the city, but her warnings were ignored. Her name is now applied to anyone who predicts gloom and disaster

129

Trojan Horse

After ten years of fighting, the Greeks still had not taken Troy, for the city had strong and well-defended walls. It was only through the trick of the wooden horse that the Greeks were able to gain entry into the city and then destroy it. Although the Trojan seer Laocoon had warned them with the words, "Whatever it is, I fear the Greeks, even those bearing gifts," the Trojans dragged the huge horse, which the Greeks built with the help of Athene, inside the city gates, unaware that it was filled with Greek soldiers. While the Trojans slept, the Greeks climbed out and overwhelmed the city.

130

The Term Trojan Horse

Anyone that seeks to destroy within

131

Stentor

Stentor was the herald of the Greek army and had a voice as loud as those of fifty men.

132

stentorian

an adjective that is now applied to a person having a loud and powerful voice

133

Odysseus

The Odysseus was a brave and clever fighter at Troy, but his confrontation with danger really began on his journey back to his native Ithaca, a trip that took him nine years. Despite his extraordinary adventures, recorded in the Odyssey, all that Odysseus longed for was to return home.

134

Penelope

While Odysseus wandered, Penelope, his faithful wife, kept off the advances of many suitors who wished not only to marry her, but also to gain Odysseus's kingdom. By a variety of clever stratagems, she fended them off until Odysseus's return. Penelope became the model of the faithful wife

135

Mentor

Mentor, a friend of Odysseus, gave helpful advice and counsel to Odysseus's son, Telemachus, while Odysseus was absent. his name now means a wise counselor or teacher.

136

Arcadia

Arcadia, a region in southwestern Greece, was viewed by ancient poets as a place of bucolic simplicity. Later writers continued to celebrate that tradition, and the adjective Arcadian is now used to describe an idealized rural existence.

137

Rich as Croesus

Croesus, a sixth century BCE kind of Lydia, was said to have been so rich that his name has come to mean a person of untold wealth.

138

Draconian

Draco, a seventh century BCE Athenian lawgiver, produced a legal code so harsh in its penalties that his laws were said to have been written in blood, not ink. Any unusually severe measure may be described as draconian.

139

Laconic

The ancient city-state of Sparta was located in the regions of Greece called Laconia. Since Spartans were known for the brevity of their speech, the adjective laconic may be used to describe an individual who is concise in his remarks

140

Mausoleum

The widow of the fourth-century BCE king Mausolus built a tomb for her husband at Halicarnassus that was so spectacularly decorated with sculpture that it became synonymous with an elaborate monument to the dead.

141

Meander

The Meander River, in Asia Minor, was noted for its twisted and winding path in the Aegean Sea.

142

Pyrrhic victory

In the third century BCE, Pyrrhus, the king of Epirus, fought and won many battles against the Romans, but such great costs that he is reported to have said, "One victory like this and I am undone." A pyrrhic victory, then, is one that is gained at too great a cost.

143

Solecism

The inhabitants of ancient Soloi were so famous for their terrible Greek grammar that they gave their name to the incorrect usage of language or manners.

144

Solon

Solon, an Athenian leader of the early 6th century NCE, was noted for his keen sense of justice. His social and political reforms laid the groundwork for the Athenian democracy, and his name now may be used to describe a wise statesman or lawmaker.

145

Spartan

The inhabitants pf Sparta prided themselves on their rigorous, disciplined, and simple way of life. To live in this way may be described as spartan.

146

Sybaritic

The inhabitants of the ancient Greek city of Sybaris, on the other hand, were noted for their luxurious and excessive way of life. Although the city was destroyed in the sixth century BCE, it survives in the adjective sybaritic, which described the enjoyment of sensuous and indulgent pleasures.

147

sophia (greek)

wisdom

148

ethos (greek)

custom, usage; character, disposition

149

mos, moris

custom, usage; manner

150

ingenium, ingenii

natural quality; inborn characteristic

151

genus, generis

natural quality; inborn characteristic

152

Platonism

the doctrine of the fourth century BCE Greek philosopher Plato and his successors. Because Plato taught the highest form of love was that of the soul for the Good, the term platonic is most often used not to refer to his elevation above all else of spiritual lover untouched by physical desire

153

Stoicism

the doctrine of the school of philosophy founded by the fourth century BCE by Zeno; the word stoic is now used to refer to one of the central teachings of the school, that one should submit uncomplainingly to Fate and "go with the flow."

154

stoa (greek)

the adjective from which stoic is derived from, a detached portico in Athens where Zeno supposedly taught his followers.

155

Epicuseanism

the teachings of the fourth-century BCE Greek philosopher Epicurus, who preached that the highest good is pleasure, which his followers interpreted as freedom from pain or disturbance, but which his critics condemned as the pursuit of unbridled freedom and indulgence. The adjective is now used to refer to the enjoyment of sensual pleasures, especially eating and drinking.

156

Hedonism

the doctrine that teaches that pleasure or happiness is the highest good. The noun is derived from hedone (greek), and now connotes an excessive devotion to physical pleasure

157

Cynicism

a doctrine of a school of Greek philosophy that preached independence of action and complete freedom form social conventions. The etymology of the name is a matter of debate; the root of the word is kyon, kynos (greek) meaning dog, and it has been suggested that the name is derived from the fact that the Cynics were noted for their rude behavior and took special pleasures in violated the rules of polite society. Perhaps the most famous of the Cynics was the 4th century BCE Diogenes, who went about with a lantern saying that he was looking for an honest man. Today, the word is used to describe someone who questions social values and distrusts human sincerity and moral purpose.

158

Skepticism

The skeptic philosophers taught that since sense perceptions were deceptive, there was no possibility of absolute knowledge about anything, and therefore, one was to withhold judgement about everything. Pyrrhon, the fourth century BCE founder of the school, taught that nobody has yet found the truth, so why distress ourselves? By genuinely indifferent to all that happens, for appearances are enough to live by.

159

biblos (greek)

books

160

dogma (greek)

decree; opinion; teaching

161

doxa (greek)

belief; opinion

162

doceo-docere-doctum

show, teach

163

apostello (greek)

send out

164

martys, martyros (greek

witness

165

oecumene (greek)

inhabited world

166

angelos (greek)

messenger

167

ecclesia (greek)

assembly

168

heiros (greek)

sacred

169

hagios (greek)

sacred, holy; saint

170

credo-credere-creditum

believe; trust

171

sacrum, sacri

sacred, holy

172

templum, templi

temple