Flashcards in Chapters 14-17 Deck (95):
What cancers are the top four killers of men?
What cancers are the top four killers for women?
What are some causes of cancer?
Viruses- Hep B, HIV, HPV
What are the warning signs of cancer?
C-Change in bowel or bladder habits
A-A sore that does not heal
U-Unusual Bleeding or Discharge
T-Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere
I-Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
O-Obvious change in wart or mole
N-Nagging cough or hoarseness
What is the diagnosis process for cancer?
*Blood work Results
*Imaging testing (X-ray, mammogram, CT scan, MRI, ultrasound)
*Biopsy (Surgical removal of a small piece of tissue through a fine needle)
Where is carcinoma found?
in the linings or coverings of organs
Where are sarcomas found?
In the bones
Where does myeloma occur?
In the bone marrow.
Where does Lymphoma develop?
In the lymphatic system
What is leukemia?
A progressive disease of blood forming tissue.
What are the stages of cancer?
Stage 1- Cancer limited to a local site
Stage 2- Cancer affects nearby organs
Stage 3- Cancer invades the lymphatic system
Stage 4- Cancer has spread through the entire body
What are three treatments for cancer?
What are the four types of goals that a PT uses depending on the stage of cancer?
Preventative (Maintain mobility and function)
Restorative (Return patient to the level they were at before they got sick)
Supportive (Encourage mobility and activity, teach coping skills)
Palliative (Reduce discomfort)
What are the three types of muscle tissue?
What are the types of muscle contractions?
A movement that makes the angle between two bones at their joint smaller than it was at the beginning of the movement.
A movement that makes the angle between two bones at their joint larger than it was at the beginning of the movement.
A movement that takes a part away from the midline of the body.
A movement that takes a part toward the midline of the body.
A movement around a longitudinal axis.
Rotation of the arm or leg outward.
Is the body's response to the ground forces incurred during running and walking.
Flexion of the foot in an upward direction
Movement of the foot that flexes the foot or toes downward toward the sole
What are the different types of bones?
hat are the divisions of the skeleton?
What is a bone island?
An area of compact bone located in spongy bone.
What is an Osteoid Osteoma?
A benign tumor that is in the center of growing cells that are surrounded by a shell of thickened bone.
What is an Osteochondroma?
A benign tumor that develops during childhood in or around the growth plate.
What is a soft tissue tumor?
Is a tumor that can occur in any site of the body and has a wide variety of looks.
Where do osteosarcomas develop in the body?
Who's is more likely to develop an osteosarcoma?
Men are 2x more likely to get it than women.
What is Chondrosarcoma and what does it affect?
Cancer of the hyolyncartileage
ribs and pelvic bone
Where is Ewings Sarcoma found?
In the bone or soft tissue
What is malignant soft tissue tumors?
They are sarcomas of the connective tissue.
Inflammation of bone or bone marrow
What usually causes osteomyelitis?
What does osteomyelitus affect?
How is osteomyelitus treated?
What is the percentage of infections that occur due to prosthses and implants?
How is infection from a prostheses or implant treated?
Antibiotics are given.
If this does not work then the prostheses or implant is removed, the are is cleaned out and left open until the body heals.
What is diskitis?
An infection between the disks of the vertebrae.
What causes diskitis?
A viral or bacterial infection?
Who is at risk for diskitis?
Young children, people with compromised immune systems, IV drug users and post surgery patients.
How is diskitis treated?
With antibiotics and reducing mobility of the affected area.
What is Infectious(Septic) Arthritis?
An infection that causes arthritis. Usually a bacterial infection.
What are the signs and symptoms of septic arthritis?
Pain in the infected area
How is septic arthritis treated?
Treated with IV antibiotics
Attempt to remove fluid from the affected joint with a needle
How is dermatomyositis diagnosed?
By a red patchy skin rash.
What are the signs and symptoms of dermatomyositis?
Hardened lumps under skin
weakness around affected area
Difficulty standing from a seated position.
Who is more apt to develop Inclusion-body myositis and what is usually the age of onset?
Men are more apt to get it than women. It usually hits its onset at the age of 50 yrs. or older.
Who is affected by Juvenile Myositis?
Children under the age of 18yrs.
What are the signs and symptoms of Juvenile Myositis?
First sign- Skin rash
Characteristic purple/red rash on eyelids and face
Hardened lumps under the skin
Who does polymyositis affect and what is the age of onset?
Affects women more than men
Onset is 20yrs and older.
What is skeletal tuberculosis?
TB outside the lungs in bones and joint (ancient disease)
What are the signs and symptoms of skeletal tuberculosis?
Pain, curving of the bone, bone may weaken and fracture easy,Loss of movement in the joint
What parts of the body does skeletal tuberculosis affect?
Hips, knees, elbows, wrist and any other joints except in the mouth
Who is at risk for osteoporosis?
Females are more at risk then men. Especially slender small boned women.
A medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from loss of tissue, typically as a result of hormonal changes, or deficiency of calcium or vitamin D.
What does osteoporosis affect?
Bones fracture easy especially in the wrist, hips and L4/L5 vertebrae.
How is osteoporosis treated?
Drug therapy, vitamin supplements and exercise.
What is Ricket's?
A demineralization of the bones (it is a vitamin D deficiency)
Who does Rickett's affect?
It affect small children before their bones calcify causing the bones to bow.
How is Rickett's treated?
A vitamin D supplement is given.
It is a softening of the bones, typically through a deficiency of vitamin D or calcium.
How does Osteomalacia affect the body?
Causes fractures of the vertebrae
Fractures of the neck of the femur
Define Paget's Disease.
An intermitted and uncontrolled time of bone forming (osteoblast) and bone breakdown (osteoclast) which results in deformed and unstable bones that are easy to fracture.
What are the signs and symptoms of Paget's Disease?
No symptoms early on However it becomes very painful as the disease progresses.
Define an open (compound)fracture.
Bone pierces through the skin.
Define a closed (simple fracture)
Bone does not pierce the skin.
Define a complete fracture.
Bone fragments separate completely.
Define an incomplete fracture
Some of the bone fragments are still joined.
Define a linear fracture.
Fracture is parallel to the bones long access.
Define a spiral Fracture.
When the fracture line wraps around the bones and resemble a candy cane.
Define a transverse fracture.
It runs at a right angle to the long bone access.
Define an oblique fracture.
Fracture runs diagonal to the long bone access
Define a green stick fracture.
When the bone bends then cracks (This is more common in young children.
Define a communicated fracture.
When the bone is broke in to several pieces
Define a non-communicated fracture.
There are some pieces that are no longer attached.
A degeneration of joint cartilage and the underlying bone.
(This is the most common Non-inflammatory disorder)
Define Heterotopic Ossification
When bone tissue forms outside of the skeleton, usually into muscle tissue.
When does Heterotopic Ossification occur?
It occurs when the patient has just underwent surgery or trauma to hips or legs.
Also occurs in those who have a traumatic brain injury, neuro issues or severe burns.
It is a vascular necrosis. Disease is caused by reduced blood flow to the bones and joints.
(Regeneration of new bone is slowed therefore causing the bone to die).
Define Legg-Calve- Perthes.
When the ball of the thigh bone doesn't get enough bloodflow causing bone death and the femur to become flat.
Define Osgood-Schlatter Syndrome
Irritation of patella ligament where the patella connects to the tibia tubirosity.
Define Myasthenia Gravis.
It is an autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks where the nerve meets the muscle. (usually occurs in the throat)
Separation of bones
Injury to ligaments surrounding the joint
Injury to any muscle,tendon etc
Painful muscle spasms
Minor trauma to the body (local bleeding and inflammation)
What is the cause of an Inflammatory Joint Disorder?
Define Rheumatoid Arthritis
Autoimmune disorder that is a chronic inflammation of connective tissue.
Define Gouty Arthritis
A build up of uric acid that becomes a sodium urate crystal that triggers inflammation.