Chapters 17 & 18 vocab Flashcards Preview

Biology > Chapters 17 & 18 vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 17 & 18 vocab Deck (49):
1

Hardy-Weinberg principle

The principle that states that the frequency of alleles in a population does not change over generations unless outside forces act on the population

2

Developmental genes

Genes that tell an organism when and where to place body structures

3

Paleontologist

Scientists who study bones of dead, old organisms/ fossils

4

Artificial selection

The selective breeding of organisms by humans for specific characteristics

5

Reproductive Isolation

The inability of members of a population to successfully interbreed with members of another population of the same or related species

6

Geologic Time Scale

Developed to tell what happened throughout time using dating (radioactive and relative)

7

Convergent evolution

The process by which unrelated species become more similar as they adapt to the same environment

8

Descent with modification

Basically evolution

9

Adaptation

The process of becoming more adapted for the environment

10

Geographic Isolation

The physical separation of populations due to geographic barriers to prevent interbreeding

11

Homologous Structures

Anatomical structures in one species, that look similar to that of another species while they are embryos (because they came from a common ancestor)

12

Behavioral isolation

A reproductive barrier based on behavior, usually in the form of mating rituals and signals that attract mates. This may be one of the most important factors in determining whether closely related species mate with each other or not.

13

Vestigial Structures

A structure in an organism that is reduced in size and function that may have been necessary to past ancestors

14

Extinct

When an entire species dies

15

Half-life

The amount of time it takes for half the radioactive isotopes of a sample to decay

16

Macroevolution

An evolutionary change that takes place over a long period of time

17

Punctuated Equilibrium

A model of evolution in which short periods of drastic change in space are separated by long periods of little or no change (including mass extinctions and speciation)
)

18

Radioactive Dating

Using the half-lives of isotopes to determine the age of a fossil

19

Reproduce

To create offspring

20

Index fossils

A fossil of an organism that lived in many places but only for a short period of time. It's used in relative dating.

21

Survival of the fittest

The differentiation between surviving and reproducing

22

Temporal isolation

When an evolutionary mechanism prevents individuals of different species from interbreeding (ex: reproducing at different times of the year)

23

Fitness

The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce (*)

24

Coevolution

The ovulation of two or more species that is due to mutual influence (one changes so the other changes), eventually causing the species to become more alike

25

Eras

The longest time periods of the Geologic Time Scale

26

Fossil Record

All of the fossils that have been found and their age determined

27

Common descent

Sharing a common ancestor

28

Speciation

The formation of a new species due to evolution (a species branches off into new ones)

29

Relative Dating

Dating based on the surrounding layers and index fossils

30

Isotopes

Their half-lives are used in radioactive dating to determine the age of an organism

31

Isolated

To be alone

32

Extinct

When an entire species dies

33

Half-life

The amount of time it takes for half the radioactive isotopes of a sample to decay

34

Macroevolution

An evolutionary change that takes place over a long period of time

35

Punctuated Equilibrium

A model of evolution in which short periods of drastic change in space are separated by long periods of little or no change (including mass extinctions and speciation)
)

36

Radioactive Dating

Using the half-lives of isotopes to determine the age of a fossil

37

Reproduce

To create offspring

38

Index fossils

A fossil of an organism that lived in many places but only for a short period of time. It's used in relative dating.

39

Survival of the fittest

The differentiation between surviving and reproducing

40

Temporal isolation

When an evolutionary mechanism prevents individuals of different species from interbreeding (ex: reproducing at different times of the year)

41

Fitness

The ability of an organism to survive and reproduce (*)

42

Coevolution

The ovulation of two or more species that is due to mutual influence (one changes so the other changes), eventually causing the species to become more alike

43

Eras

The longest time periods of the Geologic Time Scale

44

Fossil Record

All of the fossils that have been found and their age determined

45

Common descent

Sharing a common ancestor

46

Speciation

The formation of a new species due to evolution (a species branches off into new ones)

47

Relative Dating

Dating based on the surrounding layers and index fossils

48

Isotopes

Their half-lives are used in radioactive dating to determine the age of an organism

49

Isolated

To be alone