Chapters 2/3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 2/3 Deck (31):
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Acid

A substance that liberates hydrogen ions when in an aqueous solution; compare with base.

1

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

The compound that is the important intracellular energy source; cellular energy.

2

Base

A substance that accepts hydrogen ions; proton acceptor; compare with acid.

3

Carbohydrate

Organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes starches, sugars, cellulose.

4

Enzyme

A substance formed by living cells that acts as a catalyst in chemical reactions in the body.

5

Lipid

Organic compound formed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; examples are fats and cholesterol.

6

Nucleic Acid

Class of organic molecules that includes DNA and RNA.

7

pH

The symbol for hydrogen ion concentration; a measure of the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

8

Protein

A complex nitrogenous substance; the main building material of cells.

9

Nucleus

(1)a dense central body in most cells containing the genetic material of the cell; (2)cluster of neuronal cell bodies in the brain or spinal cord.

10

Nuclear Membrane

The double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells.

11

Chromatin

The structures in the nucleus that carry the hereditary factors (genes).

12

Chromosomes

Barlike body of tightly coiled chromatin; visible during cell division.

13

Microvilli

The tiny projections on the free surfaces of some epithelial cells; increase surface area for absorption.

14

Cytoplasm

The substance of a cell other than that of the nucleus.

15

Cytosol

The part of the cytoplasm that is not held by any of the organelles in the cell.

16

Mitochondria

The rod like cytoplasmic organelles responsible for ATP generation.

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Ribosomes

Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.

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Endoplasmic Reticulum

A membranous network of tubular or saclike channels in the cytoplasm of a cell.

19

Golgi Apparatus

An organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It is another packaging organelle like the endoplasmic reticulum.

20

Lysosomes

Organelles that originate from the Golgi apparatus and contain strong digestive enzymes.

21

Cytoskeleton

A network of fibers composed of proteins contained within a cell's cytoplasm.

22

Centrioles

A minute body found near the nucleus of the cell composed of microtubules; active in cell division.

23

Template

A strand of DNA which sets the genetic sequence of new strands.

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Gene

Biological units of heredity located in chromatin; transmits hereditary information.

25

Anticodon

A sequence of three nucleotides in a region of transfer RNA that recognizes a complementary coding triplet of nucleotides in messenger RNA during translation by the ribosomes in protein biosynthesis.

26

Epithelial Tissue

One of the primary tissues; covers the surface of the body and lines the body cavities, ducts, and vessels.

27

Gland

An organ specialized to secrete or excrete substances for further use in the body or for elimination.

28

Extracellular Matrix

Nonliving material in connective tissue consisting of ground substance and fibers that separate the living cells.

29

Tendons

Core of dense fibrous tissue attaching a muscle to a bone.

30

Ligaments

A cord of fibrous tissue that connects bones.