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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (30):
0

Abduction

The movement of a limb or other part away from the midline of the body, or from another part.

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Acetylcholine

A chemical transmitter substance released by certain nerve endings.

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Actin

A contractile protein

3

Action potential

An electrical event occurring when a stimulus of sufficient intensity is applied to a neuron or muscle cell, allowing sodium ions to move into the cell and reverse the polarity.

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Adduction

To move toward the midline of the body

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Aerobic respiration

Respiration in which oxygen is consumed and glucose is broken down entirely; water, carbon dioxide, and large amounts of ATP are the final products.

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Anaerobic glycolysis

A metabolic process in which glucose is broken down without the use of oxygen.

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Antagonists

Muscles that act in opposition to an agonist or prime mover.

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Aponeuroses

Fibrous or membranous sheet connecting a muscle and the part it moves.

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Creatine Phosphate

Found in muscle fibers but not other cell types

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Dorsiflexion

Lifting foot towards shin

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Extension

Increase in angle between bones

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Fixators

Muscles to immobilize joints

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Flexion

Decreases the angle between bones

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Insertion

Moveable attachment of a muscle opposed to its origin

15

Lactic Acid

Product of anaerobic metabolism

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Motor Unit

Motor neuron and all of the muscle cells it supplies

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Myofibrils

Contractile organelles found in the cytoplasm of muscle cells

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Myosin

Principle contractile proteins

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Neuromuscular junction

Where motor neurons come into close contact with skeletal muscle

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Neurotransmitter

Chemical released by neurons that may stimulate or inhibit them

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Origin

Attachment of muscle

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Oxygen debt

Amount of oxygen required after exercise to oxidize the lactic acid formed during exercise

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Plantar flexion

Bottom of foot flexed

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Prime mover

Muscle whose contractions are primarily responsible for a particular movement; agonist.

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Pronation

The inward rotation of the forearm causing the radius to cross diagonally over the ulna- palms face posteriorly

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Supination

The outward rotation of the forearm causing palms to face anteriorly

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Synaptic cleft

The fluid-filled space at a synapse between neurons.

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Synergists

Muscles cooperating with another muscle or muscle group to produce a desired movement.

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Tendons

Cord of dense fibrous tissue attaching a muscle to a bone.