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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (29):
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Afferent Neuron

Nerve cells that carry impulses toward the central nervous system.

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Autonomic Nervous System

The division of the nervous system that functions involuntarily; innervates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands.

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Axon

Neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body; efferent process; the conducting portion of a nerve cell.

3

Brain Stem

The portion of the brain consisting of the medulla, pons, and midbrain.

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Central Nervous System

The brain and the spinal cord.

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Cerebellum

Part of the hind-brain; involved in producing smoothly coordinated skeletal muscle activity.

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Cerebral Hemisphere

Highest level of the Central Nervous System; divided into right and left hemisphere.

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Cerebrospinal Fluid

The fluid produced by choroid plexuses; fills the ventricles and surrounds the central nervous system.

8

Dendrites

The branching extensions of neurons that carry electrical signals to the cell body; the receptive portion of a nerve cell.

9

Deplorization

The loss of a state of polarity; the loss of a negative charge inside the plasma membrane.

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Efferent Neuron

Neurons that conduct impulses away from the central nervous system.

11

Ganglion

A group of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system.

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Gray Matter

The gray area of the central nervous system; contains unmyelinated nerve fibers and nerve cell bodies.

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Interneurons

Completes the pathway between afferent and efferent neurons; also called an association neuron.

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Meninges

The membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.

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Myelin

A white, fatty lipid substance.

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Nerve

Bundle of neuronal processes (axons) outside the central nervous system.

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Neurolgia

The nonneuronal tissue of the central nervous system that performs supportive and other functions; also called glia.

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Neurons

Cells of the nervous system specialized to transmit messages throughout the body.

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Nodes of Ranvier

Periodic gap in the insulating sheath on the axon of certain neurons that serves to facilitate the rapid conduction of nerve impulses.

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Peripheral Nervous System

A system of nerves that connects the outlying parts of the body with the central nervous system.

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Plexus

A network of interlacing nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics.

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Polarization

The state of an unstimulated neuron or muscle cell in which the inside of the cell is relatively negative in comparison to the outside; the resting state.

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Receptor

A peripheral nerve ending specialized for response to particular types of stimuli.

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Reflex

Automatic reaction to a stimulus.

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Repolarization

Restoration of the membrane potential to the initial resting (polarized) state.

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Somatic Nervous System

A division of the peripheral nervous system; also called the voluntary nervous system.

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Synapse

The region of communication between neurons, or a neuromuscular junction between a neuron and a muscle cell.

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White Matter

White substance of the central nervous system; the myelinated nerve fibers.