Chapters 4-6 Flashcards Preview

Human Services 051 > Chapters 4-6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapters 4-6 Deck (80):
1

Common destructive attitudes of a helper:

-critical
-disapproving
-discounting
-disbelieving
-punishing
-rejecting
-ridiculing
-scolding
-threatening

2

Constructive positive attitudes to have as a helper:

-accepting
-actively listen
-competent
-cognitive complexity
-empathetic
-genuine
-psychological adjustment

3

Power of nonverbal behavior differs based on culture but include:

-posture
-personal space
-tone
-touching
-eye contact
-greeting norms

4

Techniques for effective listening:

-Calm yourself down
-Stop talking, do not interrupt
-Show interest
-Do not jump to conclusions
-Actively listen
-Concentrate on feelings
-Concentrate on content
-Maintain appropriate eye contact
-Have open body posture
-Be sensitive of personal space
-Do not ask questions (unless to clarify content)

5

Affirmation:

Reinforce a consumer's existing way of being.

6

Encouragement:

Reinforce a consumer's ability to perform a task.

7

When creating a helping environment your office/work space should have:

-comfy temp
-nonglare lighting
-comfy seating
-no large obstruction
-nonoffensive displays/writings
-positive and welcome attitude

8

Modeling:

Consumers learn what to do by observing HS professionals.
-direct impact
-constructive and destructive
-directly and indirectly

9

Self-Disclosure:

-Has the ability to facilitate a client's openness and may model positive behavior for consumer.
-Done for consumer growth, not personal satisfaction or need.
-Have a direct purpose for sharing.

10

Open questions:

Allow consumers to respond in a variety of ways and facilitate self-exploration.

11

Closed questions:

Limit consumer responses and are more effective in gathering info quickly.

12

Tentative questions:

Facilitate relationship building and client self-exploration.

13

Giving advice:

Only attempted with established relationships.

14

Offering alternatives:

Empowers the consumer; they choose.

15

Giving information:

Provides objective and accurate factual info.

16

Confrontation:

Give feedback without judgment, critique, or aggression.

17

Application of various techniques:

-Actively listen
-Apply empathic responses
-Affirm and encourage the consumer
-Apply/be aware of modeling
-Self-disclose as appropriate
-Use open, closed, and tentative questions
-Give advice, offer alternatives and info as appropriate
-Confront the consumer as appropriate

18

Stages of The Helping Relationship:

Stage 1: Rapport and Trust Building
Stage 2: Problem Identification
Stage 3: Deepening Understanding and Goal Setting
Stage 4: Work
Stage 5: Closure

19

Stage 1: Rapport and Trust Building

-physical environment feels safe
-inform about the counseling process
-professional disclosure
-informed consent
-apply effective listening skills, empathic understanding, cultural sensitivity, and social skills

20

Stage 2: Problem Identification

-you validate your initial assessment of the problems
-explore additional issues
-use of questions is important
-GOAL: clearly focus on the problem/issue the client wishes to work on

21

Stage 3: Deepening Understanding and Goal Setting

-trust has been established
-consumer allows HS professional to confront him/her, ask probing questions, and give advanced empathic responses
-sensitivity is key
-mutual agreements occur

22

Stage 4: Work

-consumer works on the identified and agreed upon issues
-HS professional facilitates progress using various techniques and skills
-consumer builds higher self-esteem as goals are accomplished

23

Stage 5: Closure

Successful closure:
-discussed early
-clear accomplished goals means clients know they are near completion
-HS professional respects clients termination and still discusses feelings that it may be too soon
-relationship maintains professional
-consumers know they can return
-consumers review success
-consumers discuss feeling of loss due to termination

24

Case Management:

Treatment planning.

Formation of consumer needs leading toward the formation of client goals.

25

Case management includes the following activities:

-ability testing
-clinical interview
-diagnosis
-follow up
-monitoring/awareness of medicines
-monitoring, evaluating, and documenting progress toward consumer goals
-make referrals
-personality testing
-time management
-use of informal instruments (observation, personal docs, review of records)

26

Case Report file consists of:

-consumer concerns
-assessments
-progress during treatment
-final disposition
-info about services rendered (contact hours, referrals)

27

Use of Case Files/Records:

-Court to show adequate care took place
-Conceptualization of the problem
-Making diagnosis
-Consumer progress
-Supervision
-Accurately recall what consumer said
-Treatment approvals
-Funding

28

Development is:

-Continual
-Orderly, sequential and builds upon itself
-A change process
-Painful yet growth producing
-Hopeful
-Preventive and wellness-oriented

29

Conception:

A single sperm cell (male) penetrates the outer coating of the egg (female) and fuse to form one fertilized cell.

30

Prenatal Development:

A zygote is a fertilized cell with 100 cells, which become increasingly diverse. At about 14 days the zygote turns into an embryo.

At 9 weeks an embryo turns into a fetus.

31

Developing brain:

-Peaks around 28 billion at 7 months
-These neurons are pruned to 23 billion at birth
-Greatest neuronal spurt is in the frontal lobe enabling the individual for rational thought
-Last to develop are the association areas of the cortex linked with memory, thinking, and language

32

Maturation:

The development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, leading various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence- standing before walking, babbling before talking.

Sets the basic course of development, experience adjusts it.

33

Motor development:

Infants begin to roll over first followed by sitting unsupported, crawling, and finally walking, then running.

Experience has little effect on this sequence.

34

Piaget's Cognitive Development:

Schemas, Assimilation, and Accommodation.

35

Schemas:

Create/learn mental molds into which we pour our experiences.

36

Assimilation:

Incorporate new experiences into our current understanding (schema).

37

Accommodation:

Adjust a schema and modify it.

38

Origins of attachment:

Harlow showed that infants bond with surrogate mothers because of bodily contact and not nourishment.

Bodily contact, familiarity is another factor for causing attachment.

39

Secure attachment:

Relaxed and attentive caregiving becomes the backbone of secure attachment.

40

Adolescence:

Life between childhood and adulthood.

41

Physical development:

-Adolescence begins with puberty (sexual maturation).

-Puberty occurs earlier in females (11 years) than males (13 years). So height in females increases before males.

42

Forming an identity:

In Western cultures many adolescents try out different selves before settling into a consistent and comfortable identity. Having such an identity leads to forming close relationships.

43

Preconventional morality:

Before age 9, children show morality to avoid punishment or gain reward.

44

Conventional morality:

By early adolescence, social rules and laws are upheld for their own sake.

45

Postconventional morality:

Affirms people's agreed-upon rights or follows personal perceived basic ethical principles.

46

Emerging adulthood:

Spans from 18-25 years. During this time young adults live with their parents and attend college or work. They marry on average in their mid 20s

47

Adulthood:

Although adulthood begins sometime after mid-20s, defining adulthood into stages is more difficult than defining stages during childhood or adolescence.

48

Middle adulthood:

Muscular strength, reaction time, sensory abilities and cardiac output begin to decline after mid 20s. Around 50, women go through menopause; and men experience decreased levels of hormones and fertility.

49

Older age: sensory abilities

After age 70, hearing, distance perception, and the sense of smell diminish, as do muscle strength, reaction time and stamina, and motor abilities. After 80, neural processes slow down, especially for complex tasks.

50

Aging and memory:

As we age, we remember some things well. These include recent past events and events that happened a decade or two back. However, recalling names declines.

51

Recognition memory:

Does not decline with aging, and material that is meaningful is recalled better then meaningless material. The same is true for prospective memory.

52

Aging and intelligence:

Longitudinal studies suggest that intelligence remains relatively stable as we age. Vocabulary and general knowledge increases with age.

53

Fluid intelligence:

Ability to reason speedily.

This declines with age.

54

Crystallized intelligence:

Accumulated knowledge and skills.

This does not decline with age.

55

Social development:

Many differences between young and old are not based simply on physical and cognitive abilities, but may be based on life events associated with family, relationships and work.

56

Death and dying:

There is no "normal" reaction or series of grief stages after the death of a loved one. Grief is more sudden death occurs unexpectedly.

57

General Systems Theory:

Each system has boundaries which define the information flow and allow the system to maintain its structure while interacting with other systems.
Homeostasis (balance) is the goal.

58

Characteristics of a healthy system:

-Semipermeable boundaries
-Rules
-Change is made as needed

59

Semipermeable boundaries:

Allow new information to enter the system and be processed, evaluated, and incorporated.

60

Rules:

Define interactions and behaviors.

61

Define a dysfunctional family:

A family that has serious problems, often more than one.

62

Family systems:

1. Have properties which are more than the sum of the properties.
2. Are governed by certain general rules.
3. Have boundaries.
4. Boundaries are semipermeable and info may flow only in one direction.
5. Tend to read a relatively steady state.
6. Communication and feedback mechanisms.
7. Events understood to be examples of circular causality.
8. Appear purposeful.
9. Consist of subsystems and are part of a suprasystem.

63

HS professional role in family systems:

-Knowledge of family systems
-Referrals to family counselors
-Suggest workshop participation
-Offer reading materials (info)
-Provide basic advice when appropriate
-Assess the seriousness of the family dysfunction and act accordingly

64

Group systems:

-Can be viewed from systems perspective
-Vary in function
-Dynamic interaction of members resulting in specific communication patterns, power dynamics, hierarchies, and system's unique homeostasis

65

Self-Help and Personal Growth Groups (Support Groups):

-To educate, affirm, and enhance existing strengths of group members.

-No in-depth counseling; members change often; generally no charge; facilitated by trained lay person or mental health professional.

66

Pyschoeducational Groups:

-To increase self-understanding, promote personal and interpersonal growth, and prevent future problems via mental health education and support.

-No in depth self disclosure; may be ongoing or one session; may be free; well trained leader.

67

Counseling and Therapy Groups:

-More self-disclosure and personality reconstruction expected during the therapeutic process.

-4 to 12 group members, meet 8-X sessions; once a week for 1-3 hours; highly trained leader.

68

The Group Stages:

Stage 1: Pregroup Stage
Stage 2: Initial Stage
Stage 3: Transition Stage
Stage 4: Work
Stage 5: Closure

69

Pregroup Stage:

Prescreening potential group members via different methods.

70

Initial Stage:

Beginning of group; consumers feel anxiety, self-conscious, worried.

Major goals for leader is to establish rules and trust.

71

Transition Stage:

Beginning: issues of control, power, and authority.

Leader protects members to ensure no one is attacked.

Gradually members own their feelings and actions.

72

Work Stage:

Work on identified problem areas.

Members gain heightened self-esteem.

Leader prohibits members from becoming too comfortable to ensure that change and growth continue.

73

Closure Stage:

Members increase sense of accomplishment and awareness of group process ending.

Leader summarizes learning and focuses on separation process.

74

Influential group factors:

-Systems (family, community)
-Group membership behavior
-Group leadership styles
-Stages of group development

75

When working with the community for client change:

-Accurately define your problem
-Collaborate with community members
-Respect community members
-Collaboratively develop strategies for change
-Implement change strategies
-Assess effectiveness

76

Groups are a dynamic interaction of members resulting in:

Specific communication patterns, power dynamics, hierarchies, and the system's unique homeostasis.

You influence the group at each stage.

77

Negative Reinforcement is to:

Take away something the consumer does not like to increase behavior.

78

Positive Punishment is to:

Give the consumer they do not like to decrease behavior.

79

Negative Punishment is to:

Take away something the consumer likes to decrease behavior.

80

Empathic responses:

Genuine responses indicating that you have heard the consumer's concerns and understand them on an emotional level.