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Flashcards in Chatper 2 Deck (75)
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In 2010, how many on-duty FF fatalities were in the US?



What was the leading cause of death for FF?

stress or overexertion (a category that includes heart attacks and strokes)


What are the three hazards as a FF?

Fatality, Injury, Illness


What are two forms of illness?

Acute and Chronic


What is acute illness?

Sharp or severe, having a rapid onset and short duration (ex. cold and virus) lasts a few days and results in little lost duty time


What is chronic illness?

Long term and reoccurring (ex. cancer or diabetes) long lasting, can be fatal


What does it meant to make less harsh or intense; to alleviate?



What is a condition, substance, or device that can directly cause injury or loss? (The source of a risk)



What are common examples of respiratory diseases?

Asthma, lung cancer, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)


What is the description of any atmosphere that poses an immediate hazard to lie or produces immediate, irreversible, debilitating effects on health?

Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)


What are the four types of cancer that firefighters are at greater risk of contracting?

Testicular cancer, prostate cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and multiple myeloma (cancer of the bone marrow)


What is NFPA 1582?

Standard on Comprehensive Occupational Medical Program for Fire Departments


What is a stressor?

Any agent condition or experience that causes stress


What should you do if your personal stress management program is not working?

Seek assistance rom the employee assistance program (EAP)


What is the Employee Assistance Program (EAP)?

a program that helps employees and their families with work or personal problems


Which NFPA's establish criteria on uniforms or anything pertaining to clothing and equipment?

NFPA's 1971, 1975, 1977


Which NFPA's define safe training practices and programs?

NFPA's 1403, 1404, 1407, 1410, 1451


Which NFPA's set requirements for the care and maintenance of personal and respiratory protection equipment?

NFPA 1851 & 1981


Which NFPA's establish safety programs that departments must adopt?

NFPA's 1581 1582 and 1584


What is NFPA 1500?

NFPA 1500- Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program


What does NFPA 1500 do?

NFPA 1500 specifies the minimum requirements for a fire department safety and health program. May be applied to both public and private FD. Purpose is to promote safety


What type of system does NFPA 1500 require emergency operations be managed through?

incident management system (IMS) aka incident command system (ICS)


What must be included in the incident management system (IMS)

risk management plan and personal accountability system


What is a risk management plan?

a written plan that analyzes the exposure to hazards, implements appropriate risk management techniques, and establishes criteria for monitoring their effectiveness


What is rehabilitation (rehab) in terms of emergency operations?

Allowing firefighters to rest, rehydrate, and recover during an incident


What is the purpose of the employee assistance program (EAP)?

to help FF and their family with substance abuse, stress, and personal problems


What is the critical incident stress management (CISM) program?

to help provide counseling for personnel involved in highly stressful incidents, such as child fatalities, mass casualty incidents, or the death of a fellow FF


What does the acronym OSHA stand for?

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)


What is the purpose of OSHA?

to ensure workplaces are free from hazards that can cause death or serious injury


What is the standard of care?

The level of care that all persons should receive; care that does not meet this standard is considered inadequate


How many FF Life Safety Initiatives are there? Also known as "Everyone Goes Home"



What is the Phoenix Fire Department 's risk management plan that is is generally followed by FD's?

Risk a lot to save a lot, Risk a little to save a little, Risk nothing to save nothing

. risk their lives a lot, if necessary, to save savable lives
. risk their lives a little, and in a calculated manner, to save savable property
. not risk their lives at all to save lives and property that have already been lost


What do safe vehicle operations begin with?

situational awareness


What is situational awareness?

perception of the surrounding environment, and the ability to anticipate future events


What is a safe traveling distance that emergency vehicles should travel at?

300-500 feet (90-150 meters)


What is the second leading cause of FF fatalities?

accidents while responding to/returning from emergencies


What is the distance that the apparatus travels when the driver realizes they need to stop until the drivers foot touches the brake pedal?

driver-reaction distance


What is the distance the apparatus travels from the the driver touches the brake pedal until the vehicle is completely stopped?

braking distance


What is the total stopping distance?

braking distance plus driver-reaction distance


What is the immediate partial bulkhead that reduces the surge effect in a partially loaded liquid tank?



What is a spotter?

the person that backs up the vehicle


What is the leading reasons FF receive back strains?

improper lifting technique


How many FF died in training related incidents between 1996-2005?

100 FF


What are training evolutions?

the operation of fire and EMS training covering one or several aspects of FF. Also known as the practical training evolution


How is personnel safety maintained during training evolutions?

using the appropriate PPE, applying situational awareness, being healthy and in good physical condition, and adhering to all safety regulations


What is NFPA 1403?

Standard on live Fire Training Evolutions


What is an organizational model that applies to any type of emergency?

Incident Command System (ICS)


In which situation(s) can an ICS be used?

a single-unit incident that lasts only a few minutes or a complex week-long incident involving multiple agencies and mutual aid units


What are most ICS models based on?

the National Incident Management System-ICS (NIMS-ICS)


What is the National Incident Management System-ICS? (NIMS-ICS)

the standard model for incident command in the US. It provides a framework that enables agencies from different jurisdictions to work together effectively


What is the first form of protection to drivers of passing vehicles?

Being visible


What is a requirement of Dept. of Transportation (DOT) regulations to all personnel at roadway incidents?

to wear high visibility vests


How is a protected work area established at an accident scene/roadway incident?

Emergency vehicles form a protective barrier between oncoming traffic and working personnel


How should emergency vehicles be parked at an accident scene/roadway incident?

at an angle with the front wheels turned away from the scene so tat the vehicle will not strike working personnel if it is hit from behind


How is traffic control assistance requested?

local law enforcement or fire police


How do you maintain situational awareness at roadway incident?

Look before you move, keep an eye on moving traffic, walk facing oncoming traffic, follow departmental SOPs


What is crowd control?

limiting the access of nonemergency personnel to the emergency scene


How is a work area created through scene management?

Crowd control and control zones


What are the control zones?

hot, warm, cold with the cold zone being the most distant from the incident


What will you usually find in the "cold zone"?

Staging area, command post, rapid intervention crew/team (RIC/RIT)


What is a collapse zone?

an area that must be kept clear in case a wall or other piece of the structure collapses into it


At what point are collapse zones established?

When: prolonged heat or fire have weakened the structure, a defensive strategy has been adopted, or interior operations cannot be justified


What is the equation to determine a collapse zone?

1 1/2 x Building height

ex. 30 ft. tall building = 45 ft. collapse zone from its base
ex. 100 ft. tall building = 150 ft. collapse zone from its base


Where is the safest location for defensive operation?

The corner of the building


What is the point of accountability systems?

to track personnel both in an out of the hot zone


What determines exit time in a SCBA tag system?

air pressure in the lowest reading SCBA on the team


What is another word for a passport system?

tag system


What is a passport system?

a system in which company officers have a passport listing for every member of their crew. Before entering the hotel zone FF give their passports/tags to supervisor or designated Accountability Officer (AO)


What type of job-related injuries and illnesses can a FF expect to encounter?

injury: strain, sprain, cut, bruise

illness: cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, cancer, obesity, DM, drug/etoh dependence, stress induced HTN, tobacco use/dependence, exposure related diseases such as AIDS and hepatitis


What topics does NFPA 1500 cover regarding FF safety and health?

The minimum requirements for a FD and health program and may be applied to any FD. Basic concept is to promote safety. The departmental safety and health program must address all anticipated hazards to which the members might be exposed. Also provisions for dealing with a variety of nonemergency issues (etoh/drug)


Federal OSHA regulations apply to which specific group of FF?

federal and private sector employees


How do the key behaviors of driving defensively, keeping the crew intact, and following standard foreground procedures support the concept of risk management?

by anticipating potential hazards and developing strategies to deal with them. Making written risk management plans also


What areas can an employee assistance and wellness program assist with?

alcohol abuse, drug abuse, personal problems, stress, depression, anxiety, marital problems, financial problems


What key defensive driving skills can help promote safe vehicle operations?

situational awareness


What steps can you take to maintain personnel safety during training?

appropriate PPE, applying situational awareness, being healthy, and adhering to all safety regulations