Chemical Foundations Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemical Foundations Part 1 Deck (29):
1

Covenant Bonds

High dissociation energy
Number of bonds depends on atom size and electron distribution

2

Delocalized Covenant Bonds

More than one pattern
electrons are not associated with any of the molecules

3

Bonds between two non-metals

Covalent-- sharing of electrons

4

Bonds between metal and non metal

Ionic --transfer of electrons

5

What happens in Ionic Bond?

Metal losses electron to positively charged and nonmetal accepts electron to be negatively charged

6

How is Bond Geometry Determined?

by type of bonds and by number of electron shared
*no rotation around double bonds

7

What are different types of covenant Bonds?

Singe
Double
Tripple
Polar
Nonpolar

8

Polar bonds

unequal electron sharing *determined by electronegativity
permanent dipole
partialy +
Partialy-

9

Nonpolar Bonds

equal electron sharing

10

Define dipole

magnetic field between + and - charged poles separated by distance

11

Define polar covalent

unequal sharing of electrons (Partialy ionic )

12

Nonpolar covenant

equal sharing of electrons

13

Where do noncovenant bonds come into play?

they help with folding of proteins and nucleic acids
plasma membrane

14

Explain common functional groups

Hydroxyl --alcohol
Acyl--- tryglycerol
Carbonyl--ketone
Carboxyl ---carboxylic acid
Sulfhydryl---thiol
Amino--- amines
Phosphate
Pyrophosphate

15

What is a Phosphoanhydride bond and whys it so high in energy?

its composed of nitrogenous purine Nadine , ribose sugar and there phosphate sugars
they are high in energy because when they are broken a tremendous amount of energy is released

16

Properties of water

high melting point
high boiling point
highly cohesive
easily dissolves polar and charged molecules
permanent dipole

17

why life is based on carbon?

carbon is very abundant
key component of all known life on earth
along with nitrogen and oxygen
18% in body
unique because can form four different bonds with other elements

18

Does water affect Ionic bonds?

Yes, bonds are very strong with the absence of water
water causes partial neutralization of charges

19

explain Van der Walls interactions

Attractive forces due to fluctuation of electron around atoms (between molecules of the same substance)
TRANSIENT-partial charges
dipoles
distance dependent
weak
NOT AFFECTED BY WATER
important for interactions of non polar substances in water

20

Can non polar molecules participate in hydrogen bonding?

No, caged by water molecules

21

Covenant Bonds in DNA

sugars phosphate bonds with nitrogenous bases

22

Noncovalent forces in DNA

Hydrogen bonds between nitrogenous bases
hydrophobic effect
van der walls interactions
in single and double DNA
electric repulsion

23

Molecular Complementaire

lock and key
mediated by non covenant forces between molecules

24

what is Stereochemistry?

three dimensional arrangement of a molecule

25

Explain Configurational Isomers

Cannot be interconverted without breaking a bond
Double bonds
chiral center
optical isomers rotate plain polarized
different biological activity

26

Explain Conformational isomers

CAN be interconverted by just rotation

27

What are the types of Stereoisomers?

Enantiomers--mirror images
Diastereomers non mirror images

28

Strong acid/base

Complete dissociation/protonation

29

Weak acid/base

incomplete dissociation/protonation