Fundamental Cell Structures Lecture 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Fundamental Cell Structures Lecture 1 Deck (24):
1

Explain Plasma membrane

semipermambe
ampphilic
enclosure of the cell

2

What happens in MITOCHONDRIA?

ATP synthesis through respiration
Fatty acid synthesis in ANIMALS
TCA cycle

3

Chloroplast

ATP synthesis -Photosynthesis
Fatty acid synthesis in Plants

4

What is the difference between Lysosomes and Vacuoles

both are responsible for degradation of structures and molecules but LYSOSOMES are in Animals and VACUOLES in Plants

5

what is the function of Peroxisomes?

Fatty acid oxidation
Long fatty acid in Animals
All fatty acids in plants

6

Function of Endoplasmic Reticulum

SER -- Lipid Synthesis and drug metabolism
RER--- Protein synthesis, modification, processing and transport

7

Golgi Complex

Protein modification and Trafficking

8

Cytoplasm

Glucose degradation,, Faty Acid Synthesis ANIMALS

9

Cytoskieleton

cell structure and shape,
locomotion
intracellular transport
mechanical support
Actin ailments, microtubials

10

Extra Cellular Matrix

Matrix produced and excreted by cells
proteins and polysaccharides
support cell adhesion

11

What is Endosymbiosis Hypothesis

According to this hypothesis, these organelles originated as separate prokaryotic organisms that were taken inside a primordial eukaryotic cell.
endocytosis of prokaryotes
Mitochondria- colorless aerobic prokaryotes
Chloroplast-- cyanobacteria

12

Name cellular processes that require energy

Synthesis of cellular macromolecules
synthesis of phospholipids
cellular movement
transport molecules against concentration gradient
generation of electric potential
heat

13

Asexual Reproduction

cell division after duplication genetic material
each daughter cell is an exact copy of the parent (clone)
exception-stem cell
changes through mutation

14

Sexual Reproduction

Interchange of genetic material between cells by fusing of cells
switching from Haploid to Diploid
offspring will have combination of genes
changes through mutation during meiosis

15

Define Haploid

only one set of chromosomes

16

Define Diploid

2 homologous copies of each chromosome
except sex chromosomes they are different
undergo mitosis (somatic cells)

17

what is Genome?

totality of genetic information of a cell or organism

18

Are all genome sizes the same?

No, different genome sizes between organisms
genome size and number increases between pro and eukaryotes
different arrangement of genetic material in pro and eukaryotes

19

Describe Gradual Evolution

Small change- Mutation or Horizontal gene transfer

20

Mutation

Errors in DNA
Deletion
Point Mutation
Large-scale rearrangement
Segmental duplication
Inversion
Insertion

21

What happened if unpaired mutation is passed on to daughter cells?

In gremlin cell, to progeny
In somatic cells, remain within originating tissue

22

Horizontal Gene Transfere HGT

movement of genetic material between unicellular and multicellular organisms
transmission of DNA between different genomes

23

What are the disciplines for studying cells ?

Cell Biology
Biochemistry/Biophysics
Genetics and Genomics
Development Biology

24

What is a model Organism?

species that has been widely studied because it is easy to maintain in a laboratory settings and has experimental advantages