Chemical Reactions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemical Reactions Deck (39):
1

Are enzymes consumed by the reaction that they catalyze?

NO

2

Do enzymes alter the equilibrium of the reaction?

no

3

Pro-enzyme aka?

zymogen

4

An inactive enzyme precursor which requires a biochemical change for it to become an active enzyme.

Pro-enzyme (zymogen)

5

The protein component of an enzyme to which the coenzyme is attached.

apoenzyme

6

Enzymatic reactions are affected by what three things?

Substrate concentration
PH
temperature

7

The process where there is a loss of hydrogen electrons or a gain of oxygen. OIL GOO

oxidation

8

An enzyme that causes oxygen in a compound to be changed to water.

oxidase

9

An enzyme which oxidases a compound by removing a hydrogen.

dehydrogenase

10

The process in which there is a gain of hydrogen electrons or a loss of oxygen. RIG LOO

reduction

11

An enzyme which adds hydrogen to a compound.

reductase

12

The chemical process by which a carboxyl group is added or displaces a hydrogen atom.

carboxylation

13

The enzyme which catalyzes the addition of a carboxyl group.

carboxylase

14

The process in which a carboxyl group (-COOH) is removed from an organic compound as CO2, and is commonly replaced by a hydrogen atom.

decarboxylation

15

The enzyme that catalyzes the release of CO2 from compounds.

decarboxylase

16

Refers to the cleavage of a compound by the addition of water, they hydroxyl group being incorporated in one fragment and the Hydrogen atom in the other.

Hydrolysis

17

The enzyme that facilitates hydrolysis as in sucrase in the breakdown of sucrose.

hydrolase

18

The process of introducing a phosphate group into an organic molecule.

phosphorylation

19

Enzyme which adds an inorganic phosphate to a substrate without using ATP.

phosphorylase

20

The enzyme that removes a phosphate group from it's substrate by hydrolyzing phosphoric acid monoester into a phosphate ion and a molecule with a fee hydroxyl group.

phosphatase

21

An enzyme that transfers a phosphate group from a high-energy donor molecules such as ATP.

kinase

22

An enzyme which changes the configuration and NOT the composition of a compound.

isomerase

23

A type of isomerase which moves one group to another part in the same chemical compound.

mutase

24

An enzyme that catalyzes the TRANSFER of a functional group from one molecule to another.

transferase

25

An enzyme that catalyzes the JOINING of two molecules.

ligase

26

Refers to the maximum velocity of a reaction and is proportional to enzyme concentration.

Vmax

27

The substrate concentration required to reach 1/2 Vmax.

Kmax

28

Kmax aka?

Michaelis-Menten constant

29

Substance which slows down the rate of reaction of any enzyme.

inhibitor

30

What are the three ways of enzymatic regulation?

Non- competitive inhibition
Competitive inhibition
allosteric regulation

31

Is competitive inhibition reversible or irreversible?

reversible

32

Is non-competitive inhibition reversible or irreversible?

irreversible

33

What happens to the Vmax in competitive inhibition?

Does not change

34

What happens to the Vmax in non-competitive inhibition?

Reduces Vmax

35

Will increasing the substrate affect the activity of the non-competitive inhibitor?

No, will not affect.

36

The enzyme always binds to a site other than the enzyme's active site. Competitive or non-competitive?

Non- competitive inhibition

37

An enzyme's activity is regulated by binding an effect or molecule at the enzyme's allosteric site (a site other than it's active site).

Allosteric regulation

38

Effectors that enhance the protein's activity are referred to as?

Allosteric activators

39

Effectors that decrease the protein's activity are called?

Allosteric inhibitors