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Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (20)
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What does Hund's rule state?

Hund's rule states that electrons will fill degenerate orbitals or orbitals of identical energy with parallel spins before filling higher energy orbitals


Why do electrons remain unpaired?

Electrons remain unpaired to minimize electron-electron repulsion


What is the mass number of an atom?

The mass number of an atom is composed of protons and neutrons


How an you calculate the number of neutrons?

You subtract the atomic number of an atom (# of protons) from its atomic mass (# of protons and neutrons)


What is the electronegativity trend of the periodic table?

Upper right of the table is more electronegative


How do you describe electron affinity?

Electron affinity is the energy that is released when an atom in the gaseous state accepts an electron (ie. electron affinity is the energy released to form an anion)


How does the effective nuclear charge changes in respect to the periodic table?

Effective nuclear charge increases going from left to right as the number of protons in a nucleus increases


How does effective nuclear charge relate to atomic radius?

The higher the effective nuclear charge, while the electron density cloud stays the same across a period, electron cloud retracts, decreasing the atomic radius.


To what elements can hydrogen bonding occur with?

Hydrogen bonding can ocur with Flourine, Oxygen, or nitrogen.


Compare London dispersion forces with dipole dipole

Dipole dipole is when two polar bonds from two different molecules attract one another while London dispersion force is formed from the random shifts in electron density (momentary, easily broken)


What is a metathesis reaction?

A metathesis reaction is also known as a double displacement reaction


How do kinetics and temperature relate?

Whenever the temperature of a reaction increases so does the kinetics of that reaction.


What does the Arrhenius equation relate?

It relates the rate of a reaction to the temperature, activation energy, gas constant, and frequency factor, notable NOT enthalpy


What are the relation of matter and their amount of entropy?

Generally, gases have the greatest amount of entropy while solids have the smallest.


What is sublimation?

Sublimation is the change in phase from a solid to a gas


What equation can you use to determine if a reaction will be spontaneous or not?

DeltaG = Delta - TDeltaS related the conditions of a reaction and whether or not it would be spontaneous


What is the relationship between delta G and spontaneity of a reaction?

When Delta G is negative, then a reaction is spontaneous


What is the heat of formations of elements?

The heat of formation for elements is 0


How do you calculate the standard enthalpy change?

You calculate the standard enthalpy change by Hess's law which is the Hf of the products - the Hf of reactants


What affects the speed of a gas particle?

The kinetic molecular theory of gases relate