Chest Flashcards Preview

[PBR] Pediatric Imaging > Chest > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chest Deck (163)
Loading flashcards...
1

Cardiothoracic ratio decreases as the child grows older and should be less than 50%, with the heart appearing similar to an adult by what decade

Second decade

2

A guide for normal heart is that a line drawn along the posterior tracheal wall on the lateral CXR should pass _______ to the heart

Posterior

3

True cardiomegaly in children is seen usually in what view of chest xray

Lateral

4

Thymus is proportionately largest at _____

Birth

5

It is the primary finding in asthma

Hyperinflation

6

Hyperinflation in asthma is much more common in viral or bacterial pneumonia?

Viral

7

What is the rib that should be the first to cross the diaphragm to know if the chest is adequately aerated

6th anterior rib

8

If expiratory CXR for evaluating air trapping cannot be obtained due to an uncooperative child, what technique should be done

Bilateral decubitus radiographs

9

Syndrome that presents one lung to be hyperlucent

Obliterative bronchiolitis, also called Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome

10

A decrease in the AP size of the trachea otherwise suggests a

Tracheomalacia or extrinsic compression

11

On frontal expiratory CXR, the trachea often buckles, at times dramatically. The trachea always buckles in what direction

Opposite to the location of the aortic arch

12

Normal trachea lies slightly to the ____ of the midline, due to the position of the aortic arch

Slightly to the right of the midline

13

True or false: a true midline trachea is abnormal, and it is a sign of ____

True.
Sign of double aortic arch

14

A focal right-sided impression on the trachea is almost always due to a

Right arch

15

True or false: lung volume can be increased, normal or decreased in Swyer-james syndrome

True

16

True or false: air trapping due to a foreign body will usually have increased lung volume, and should not have decreased lung volume in the absence of atelectasis

True

17

Normal tracheal buckling has _____ angles compared with the more ______ displacement seen with masses

Normal: sharp angles
With mass: rounded displacement

18

with surfactant deficiency disease, there should be no finding suggesting______ or ______

Pleural fluid or asymmetry of opacities

19

Bilaterally symmetrical coarse linear and branching opacities suggest

- cause obstruction of small peripheral bronchioles, resulting in unevenly distributed areas of subsegmental atelectasis with alternating areas of overdistension.

This creates a coarse reticulonodular or nodular appearance of the lungs (Fig. 50.40).

Meconium aspiration

Aspirated meconium particles

20

Aspirated meconium-stained fluid causes mechanical and chemical airway trauma due to its ______

Particulate nature and the presence of irritants including bile

21

Meconium aspiration pneumonia appears as

Areas of atelectasis and inflammation alternating with areas of hyperinflation

22

Features of SDD that distinguishes it from other causes of diffuse opacity

Low lung volumes with granular diffusely increased attenuation that is evenly distributed, without pleural effusion

23

Linear opacities, central greater than peripheral particularly when radiating from the hila, suggest

Retained lung fluid, aka transient tachypnea of the newborn

24

Retained lung fluid resolves both clinically and radiographically by ____ hours and should not be suggested in older infants

72 hours

24-48 hours

25

A pneumonia that simulate SDD which presents as diffuse ground glass opacities is mainly caused by what organism

group B streptococcus

26

In the immediate neonatal period, GBS usually cause ____

Pneumonia

27

Later in early infancy, GBS is more likely to cause _____

Meningitis

28

Most common cause of lung abnormalities in older infants in the neonatal ICU

- common complication of preterm birth, the manifestations of which are changing slightly in the postsurfactant therapy era.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia or chronic lung disease

29

Suggested pathophysiology of BPD

Diffuse capillary leak

30

More common area of pneumothorax in neonates

Basal pneumothoraces, particularly medially located