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CLASP: Radiology and Anatomy > Chest Imaging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chest Imaging Deck (40)
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1

what colour is air on CXR?

black

2

what colour is fat on CXR?

grey

3

what colour is soft tissue/ muscle on CXR?

grey/ white

4

what colour is bone on CXR?

white

5

what colour is metal on CXR?

bright white

6

what to check when looking at a CXR?

patients name
CHI
side marker
adequate projection

7

how do you tell if there is adequate projection on CXR?

PA
ratio of cardiac diameter to horizontal thoracic diameter is <50%
assess scapula

8

how do you tell if a CXR is adequate inspired?

anterior ends of at least 6 ribs are visible (remember the ribs you can see are posterior)

9

how do you tell if a CXR if adequately rotated?

medial ends of clavicles equidistant from spinous processes of upper thoracic vertebra

10

which hila is higher?

left due to the heart

11

which side of the diaphragm is higher?

right due to the liver

12

what should the hila look like on CXR?

chevrons ><
if not= bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy

13

review areas on CXR

1. lung apices
2. behind the heart
3. below the diaphragm
4. bone and soft tissues

14

why do you need to look at the lung apices on CXR?

masses (Pancoast tumour)
pneumothroax

15

what to look for behind the heart on CXR?

consolidation
masses
hiatus hernia

16

what to look for below the diaphragm on CXR?

free gas
lines
tube e.g. NG
gastric distension
bowel obstruction

17

what to look for in bones and tissues on a CXR?

fractures
masses
mastectomy
subcutaneous emphysema
evidence of previous surgery e.g. axillary clips

18

how many lobes does each lung have?

left= 2 lobes
right= 3 lobes

19

fissure in the right lung

oblique
horizontal

20

what causes a lobar collapse?

obstruction of a lobar bronchus

21

causes of lobar collapse

tumours
aspirated foodstuffs
mucus impacted

22

why does the lobe collaspe?

air is resorbed, loses volume and collapses

23

pleural space abnormalities

1. pleural effusion
2. pneumothorax

24

how does a pleural effusion appear on an erect CXR?

pleural fluid collects at lung bases and forms the curved appearance of a meniscus at lung edges blunting the costophrenic angles

25

what causes a pneumothorax?

rupture of the visceral pleura allows air to rush in from the lungs every time the patient inspires
air accumulates impairing respiratory function

26

why is tension pneumothorax an emergency?

displaces heart and diaphragm

27

signs of pulmonary oedema

A (alveolar oedema- batwing opacities)
B (kerley B lines)
C (cardiomegaly)
D (dilated upper lobe vessels)
E (pleural effusion)

28

what is CXR used to confirm the placement of?

endotracheal tubes (ET)
nasogastric tubes (NG)
central venous lines

29

where should an endotracheal tube sit?

5cm above carina

30

malposition of endotracheal tube

past carina
right main bronchus (more vertical at carina)
oesophagus