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CLASP: Radiology and Anatomy > Brain Imaging > Flashcards

Flashcards in Brain Imaging Deck (21)
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1

imaging modalities for the brain

1. CT
2. MRI

2

when is CT used?

first line
fast tolerated
specialist intervention e.g. angiography or venography

3

when is MRI used?

soft tissues

4

embolic causes of ischaemic stroke

cardiac embolism (AF, ventricular aneurysm, endocarditis)
paradoxical embolism
atherosclerotic embolism
fat or air embolism

5

thrombus causes of ischaemic stroke

perforator thrombus (lacunar infarct)
acute plaque rupture

6

why is imaging important in acute stroke?

exclude intracranial haemorrhage
confirm ischaemia
exclude other pathology mimics e.g. tumour
permit rapid treatment

7

first line imaging in stroke

non-contrast CT

8

non-contrast CT findings in ischaemic stroke

hyperdense segment of a vessel
loss of grey-white matter differentiation
swelling

late= gliosis, volume loss and hydrocephalus

9

example of intra-axial haemorrhage?

lobar haemorrhage

10

examples of extra-axial haemorrhage?

extradural
subdural
SAH

11

what is a SAH?

blood within the sub-arachnoid space (CSF)

12

most common cause of SAH?

circle of willis

13

what to do in the absence of trauma + SAH?

CT cerebral angiography for underlying Berry aneurysm

14

what cancers commonly metastasize to the brain?

lung
breast
melanoma
renal cell
colorectal

15

what is tonsillar herniation?

descent of the cerebellar tonsils below foramen magnum (coning) which compresses the brainstem against the clivus altering pons and medulla functions (respiratory and cardiac)

16

what contains the spinal cord?

thecal sac

17

start and end of the spinal cord?

corticomedullary junction
conus medullaries

18

causes of spinal cord compression

disc compression
verterbal tumour
epidural space abscess
spinal meningioma

19

first line for spinal pathology

MRI

20

T2 weighted MRI fluid

white

21

T1 weighted MRI fluid

black