Flashcards in Brain Imaging Deck (21)
imaging modalities for the brain
when is CT used?
specialist intervention e.g. angiography or venography
when is MRI used?
embolic causes of ischaemic stroke
cardiac embolism (AF, ventricular aneurysm, endocarditis)
fat or air embolism
thrombus causes of ischaemic stroke
perforator thrombus (lacunar infarct)
acute plaque rupture
why is imaging important in acute stroke?
exclude intracranial haemorrhage
exclude other pathology mimics e.g. tumour
permit rapid treatment
first line imaging in stroke
non-contrast CT findings in ischaemic stroke
hyperdense segment of a vessel
loss of grey-white matter differentiation
late= gliosis, volume loss and hydrocephalus
example of intra-axial haemorrhage?
examples of extra-axial haemorrhage?
what is a SAH?
blood within the sub-arachnoid space (CSF)
most common cause of SAH?
circle of willis
what to do in the absence of trauma + SAH?
CT cerebral angiography for underlying Berry aneurysm
what cancers commonly metastasize to the brain?
what is tonsillar herniation?
descent of the cerebellar tonsils below foramen magnum (coning) which compresses the brainstem against the clivus altering pons and medulla functions (respiratory and cardiac)
what contains the spinal cord?
start and end of the spinal cord?
causes of spinal cord compression
epidural space abscess
first line for spinal pathology
T2 weighted MRI fluid