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Flashcards in Child development Deck (54)
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1

Give examples of Standardised developmental assessment

SOGSII, Griffiths

2

What questions might be asked in hisotry- antenatal

illnesses/infections; medications; drugs; environmental exposures

3

What questions might be asked in hisotry- birth

prematurity, Prolonged/complicated labour

4

What questions might be asked in hisotry- postnatal

illnesses/infections; Trauma

5

What questions might be asked in consanguinity- postnatal

increases chances of chromosomal or autosomal recessive conditions

6

What features might be examined in growth paraemters for child develoment

height, weight and head circumference

7

What is childhood development

global impression of a child which encompasses:

growth,
increase in understanding,
acquisition of new skills and
more sophisticated responses and behaviour.

8

4 domains of hcilhood development

(1) gross motor and posture;

(2) fine motor and vision;

(3) language and hearing; and

(4) social, emotional and behaviour.

9

Outline the rate of child development

t follows a constant pattern, although at variable rates, among children.

10

What does developmental progress depend on

interplay between biological and environmental influences.

11

What is a limit age

The age by which they should have been achieved = 2 standard deviations from the mean. They indicate cause of major concern.

12

How can developmental progress be measured

monitored or identified either through developmental screening or by the use of standardised developmental tools

13

What is abnormal development

slow acquisition of skills and follows three main patterns

14

What 3 main patterns does absnormal development occur in

(1) slow but steady; (2) plateau; and (3) regression.

15

Give an example of a biological factor impacting child development

folate deficiency increases the risk of neural tube defects in utero which, in its most severe form, can result in limb paralysis, neurogenic bladder and bowel; and intellectual impairment.

16

How can children present with developmental concerns

through:

(i) identification of antenatal or postnatal risk factors;

(ii) developmental screening; or

(iii) concerns raised by parents or other healthcare professionals.

17

When should smiling happen

6 weeks

18

When might stanger anxiety occur

Emerge at 9 months,

established at 12 months

19

When might a child point to indicate wants

12 months

20

From when might a child wave bye bye

9 moths

21

When might a child use a spoon/'talk' on telephone/'help' in sweeping etc. (mimicry)

18 months

22

When can a child remove some clothes

2 years

23

When can a child eat with fork and spoon/pt on clothing/perhaps toilet trained

3 years

24

When does a child become still inr esponse to sound. When might they turn to sound

6 weeks (becomes still)

3 months (turns)

25

When might a child:

vocalise,

2 sylable babble,

tallk in short sentences that a stranger can understand

One or two words

6-12 words

Join 2-3 words/knows some body parts/identiies objectis in pics

vocalise= 6 months

2 sylable babble=9 months

tallk in short sentences that a stranger can understand= 3 yr

One or two words+imitates adult sounds =12 months

6-12 words=18 months

Join 2-3 words/knows some body parts/identiies objectis in pics= 2 years

26

When can a child:

hold object placed in hand

Palmar grasp, transfer object hand to hand

put block in cup

build tower of 9 cubes/copy circle

build tower of 6-7 cubes

fix and follow

Build tower of 2-4 cubes

pincer grasp/index giner approach/bang 2 cuubes together

hold object placed in hand: 3 months

Palmar grasp, transfer object hand to hand: 6 months

put block in cup: 12 montshs

build tower of 9 cubes/copy circle: 3 years

build tower of 6-7 cubes: 2 years

fix and follow

Build tower of 2-4 cubes: 18 months

pincer grasp/index giner approach/bang 2 cubes together: 9 months

27

When does hand preference emerge

18 months

28

When does a child:

walk well/run

stand briefly on 1 foot/climb stairs one foot per step

Crawl/sits steadily when unsupported and pivots

Head level with body in ventral suspension

Hold head at 90 degrees in ventral susepsnin

No head lag on pull to sit, sits with support, in prone position lifts up on forearms

Pulls to stand/cruises, may stand alone briefly, may walk alone

Kick ball, climbs stairs two feet per step

walk well/run: 18 months

stand briefly on 1 foot/climb stairs one foot per step: 3 years

Crawl/sits steadily when unsupported and pivots: 9 months

Head level with body in ventral suspension: 6 weeks

Hold head at 90 degrees in ventral susepsnin: 3 months

No head lag on pull to sit, sits with support, in prone position lifts up on forearms : 6 moths

Pulls to stand/cruises, may stand alone briefly, may walk alone: 12 months

Kick ball, climbs stairs two feet per step : 2 years

29

Common developental problems

Cerebral palsy,

autism,

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Learning disability

30

Define cerebral palsy

disorder of movement and posture arising from a non-progressive lesion of the brain acquired before the age of 2 years.

31

When is most cerebral palsy caused

Most causes (~80%) are antenatal

32

T/F cerebral palsy, if caused antenatally, will not progress throughout life

Well it's not progressive,

BUT

Presentation may evolve and vary with age

33

Problems assocated with cerebral palsy

learning difficulties, epilepsy, visual impairment, hearing loss, feeding difficulties, poor growth, and respiratory problems.

34

Aims of management in cerbral alsy

minimise spasticity and manage associated problems

35

Look at the different problems and services assocaited with erebral palsy

......

36

Who is autism more common in

Boys>girls

37

When does autism spectrum disorder usually present

2 – 4 years of age

38

Feautres of autism

1. Impaired social interaction

2. Speech and language

3. mposition of routines with ritualistic and repetitive behaviour

39

Comorbidity for
Child Development
Child Development
100%
I.
The Clinical Approach

II.
Management

III.
Summary of some common/typical developmental problems

IV.
References

V.
Summary

VI.
Review of normal development

VII.
Abnormal Development

Child Development
Summary of some common/typical developmental problems
Cerebral palsy
A disorder of movement and posture arising from a non-progressive lesion of the brain acquired before the age of 2 years.
Incidence 1-2 per 1000 live births
Most causes (~80%) are antenatal
Presentation may evolve and vary with age
Associated problems exist – learning difficulties, epilepsy, visual impairment, hearing loss, feeding difficulties, poor growth, and respiratory problems.
Management
Aim is to minimise spasticity and manage associated problems

Figure 8.2 Summary of some common/typical developmental problems

List of common/typical developmental problems

Autism spectrum disorder

learning and attention difficulties, and epilepsy

40

Management for Autism spectrum disorder

Intensive support for child and family

41

Diagnositc criteria for ADHD

(1 )Inattention; (2) Hyperactivity; (3) Impulsivity; (4) Lasting > 6 months; (5) commencing < 7 years and inconsistent with the child’s developmental level

42

In what conditions should the ADHD criteria be present for diagnosis

in more than one setting, and cause significant social or school impairment.

43

As well as diagnostic criteria, what else is seen in ADHD children

increased risk of: conduct disorder, anxiety disorder & aggression

44

Risk factros for ADHD

Boys > girls, ratio 4:1; Learning difficulties and developmental delay, neurological disorder

45

Neurological disorders increasing risk of ADHD

epilepsy, cerebral palsy; first-degree relative with ADHD; family member with depression, learning disability, antisocial personality or substance abuse

46

What happens to chilren with ADHD in adulthood

significant proportion of children with ADHD will become adults with antisocial personality and there is an increased incidence of criminal behaviour and substance abuse.

47

Management of ADHD

Psychotherapy

Family therapy

Drugs – I

Diet – Some children benefit noticeably from exclusion of certain foods from their diet, e.g. red food colouring

48

How could ADHD be managed- psychotherapy

Behavioural therapy

49

How could ADHD be managed- drugs

If behavioural therapy alone insufficient; stimulants, e.g. methylphenidate (Ritalin), amphetamines (dexamphetamine)

50

What might learning disability present with

reduced intellectual functioning, delay in early milestones, dysmorphic features, ± associated problems (epilepsy, sensory impairment, ADHD)

51

Causes of learning disability

(i) chromosome disorders (30%);

(ii) other identifiable syndromes (20%);

(iii) postnatal cerebral insults (20%);

(iv) metabolic or degenerative diseases (1%)

52

Classification of learning disability

mild, moderate, severe or profound

53

T/f every child with learning disability there is a clear cause

F: 25% of children with severe learning disability have no identifiable cause

54

Management of learning disability

stablishing a diagnosis and input from the multidisciplinary team with long term follow up.