Flashcards in Child Language Acquisition: Spoken Deck (46)
Name the four pre-verbal stages.
Vegetative, Cooing, Babbling, and Pronto-words.
What age will a child be in the vegetative stage?
What age will a child be in the cooing stage?
What age will a child be in the babbling stage?
What age will a child be in the pronto-word stage?
Explain one feature of the vegetative stage.
Discomfort sounds (crying, coughing and sucking).
Explain one feature of the cooing stage.
Any of the following:
Sounds of comfort, use of open-mouthed vowel sounds (coo's, laughter and squeals).
Explain one feature of the babbling stage.
Any of the following:
Vowel sounds that are repeated, extended sounds resembling syllable-like sequences (baba).
Explain one feature of the pronto-word stage.
Word-like vocalisations (scribble talk). E.g. 'waaaa' to mean 'I want something', along with gestures such as pointing.
What is phonemic expansion?
The increase of different phonemes used during the babbling stage.
What is phonemic contraction?
When a child discards words that they know aren't needed (this will happen at around 9-10 months).
Explain what is meant if a child uses intonation and gesture.
Child uses patterns to resemble speech e.g. raising tones at the end of speech to indicate the child is asking a question. Gestures are when the child uses physical actions such as pointing and facial expressions.
Explain what is meant by 'understanding'.
When a child may not be able to speak properly, they can still understand things that the people around them are saying.
Name the four stages of grammatical development.
Holophrastic/one word, two-word, telegraphic and post-telegraphic.
At what age should a child be in the holophrastic stage?
At what age should a child be in the two-word stage?
At what age should a child be in the telegraphic stage?
At what age should a child be in the post-telegraphic stage?
What are the features of the holophrastic stage?
What are the features of the two-word stage?
Combinations of two words.
What are the features of the telegraphic stage?
More than three words combined to make more accurate orders.
What are the features of the post-telegraphic stage?
Awareness of grammatical rules and irregularities.
What is over-extension?
When a child over-extends meanings. E.g. if a child uses the word banana for many different fruits.
Which linguist divided over-extension into three categories?
What are the three categories that Leslie Rescorla divided over-extension into?
Categorical, Analogical and Mismatch statements.
Define categorical over-extension.
When the name for one member of a category is extended to all members of the category. E.g. 'Apple' used for all round fruits.
Define analogical over-extension.
When a word for an object is extended to one in a different category, usually on the basis that it has some physical or functional connection. E.g. 'Ball' used for all round fruits.
Define mismatch statements.
One-word sentences that appear quite abstract. A child will make a statement about one object in relation to another. E.g. saying 'duck' when looking at an empty pond.
Explain what is meant by under-extension.
When a child gives a narrower definition to a word. E.g. 'yellow' only referring to banana's.
What are Jean Aitcheson's three stages of language acquisition?
Labelling, Packaging and Network Building.
What is labelling?
Making links between words and the objects they represent.
What is packaging?
Understanding a word's range of meaning. Over and under-extension will occur in this stage in order to eventually the range of a words meaning.
What is network building?
Understanding the connections between words' hypernyms and hyponyms, also understanding similarities and opposites in meanings.
Name Jean Piaget's stages of children's linguistic development.
Sensorimotor, Pre-operational, Concrete Operational and Formal Operational.
Explain Jean Piaget's stages of children's linguistic development.
Piaget linked language development with an understanding of the concepts surrounding the word's meanings, suggesting that children cannot be taught before they are ready.
What age will a child be in the sensorimotor stage of Jean Piaget's theory.
Up to the age of 2.
What age will a child be in the pre-operational stage of Jean Piaget's theory.
What age will a child be in the concrete operational stage of Jean Piaget's theory.
What age will a child be in the formal operational stage of Jean Piaget's theory.
Explain the key elements to the sensorimotor stage of Jean Piaget's theory.
The child will experience the physical world through the senses that classifies things into it. This is when lexical choices appear; they tend to be concrete rather than abstract.
Explain the key elements to the pre-operational stage of Jean Piaget's theory.
Language and motor skills develop and become more competent. Language is egocentric- either focused on the child or used by the child when no one else is around.
Explain the key elements to the concrete operational stage of Jean Piaget's theory.
Children will begin thinking logically about concrete events.
Explain the key elements to the formal operational stage of Jean Piaget's theory.
Abstract reasoning skills develop.
Explain Eve Clarks theory.
Her research found that common adjectives are among children's first 50 words, but spatial adjectives are acquired later.
Name John Dore's 'Infant Language Functions'.
Labelling, Repeating, Answering, Requesting Action, Calling, Greeting, Protesting, and Practising.