Flashcards in Child Language Acquisition: Writing Deck (25)
Name the 5 spelling stages.
Pre-phonemic, Semi-phonemic, Phonetic, Transitional and Conventional.
What are the features of the pre-phonemic stage?
Pretend writing/ scribbling.
Some shapes could be made out.
What are the features of the semi-phonemic stage?
Certain shapes represent sounds, children may use this to write sentences.
What are the features of the phonetic stage?
Understanding phonemes are represented by graphemes.
The child will write more complete words.
What are the features of the transitional stage?
Awareness of combinations of letters and patterns
e.g. the magic E rule.
What are the features of the conventional stage?
Spelling most words correctly.
Name the 7 spelling error categories.
Insertion, Omission, Substitution, Transposition, Phonetic Spelling, Over/under generalisation and Salient sounds.
What is insertion?
Adding extra letters to a word.
What is omission?
Missing out letters from a word.
What is substitution?
Substituting one letter for another.
What is transposition?
Reversing the correct order of letters.
What is phonetic spelling?
Using how we sound out words, to guess the letters.
What is under generalisation?
Only applying a rule in a specific context.
What is over generalisation?
Applying a rule where it is inappropriate to do so.
What is salient sounds?
Writing only the key sounds.
What is emergent writing?
A child's early scribble writing.
What is meant by the term 'ascender'?
The typographical feature where a portion of the letter goes above usual height for letters in any font.
What is meant by the term 'descender'?
Where a part of the letter goes below the baseline of a font.
What is cursive script?
Joined up handwriting which can improve fluency.
What is print handwriting?
Writing each letter individually which is the initial handwriting that children use.
What is casual cursive script?
A mid-point between cursive and print handwriting with some letters being joined up and some not.
What are homonyms?
Words that are spelt the same but pronounced differently.
What are homophones?
Words that are pronounced the same but have a different meaning and may have a different spelling.
What is a diagraph?
A cluster of two letters that present two sounds.