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Flashcards in Chile Deck (214):
1

Sub-Regions of Central Valley N to S

Maipo
Rapel
Curico
Maule

2

Atacama Climate

Norte Chico: Hot/Arid

3

Soils of Limarí

Calcareous: Red Clay over LS (Coonawarra-like)

4

Soils of Apalta

Granite

5

What is chicha?

A cooked/partially-fermented beverage.

6

Rapel Valley is located in the ___ Administrative Region.

O'Higgins

7

Copiapó Valley DO & Huasco Valley DO are located where?

Atacama!

8

Cautín Valley & Osorno Valley are located where?

Austral

9

San Antonio is located ___ of the Coastal Ranges.

West

10

International investment pours into Chile in the from ___ to ___, the years after Chile transitions to a democratic government.

1980's to 2000

11

Why would a producer choose to employ Mixro-Oxygenation for Carmenère?

Carmenère is reductive.

12

Top 2 grapes of Casablanca

CH
SB

13

Where are Claro Valley, Loncomilla & Tutuvén located?

Maule

14

What are the Cordilleras de la Costa?

Coastal Range (Chile)

15

Grape of Limarí

Chardonnay

16

Villard, Vermahnte and Kingston Family Vineyards are producers located in ___.

Casablanca Valley DO

17

In 2012, what 3 divisions for DO wines were established?

Costa
Entre Cordilleras ("between the mountains")
Andes

18

Top 2 Producers of Malleco

Viña Aquitania
Pedro Parra

19

What do the quality designations "Reserva", "Gran Reserva", "Selección" and Reserva Especial" indicate?

Higher ABV & Longer Oak-Aging
*Legally defined yet no real practical meaning!

20

Malleco Grapes

PN & CH

21

Who is the father of Chilean Wine?

Ochagavía

22

Aconcagua Region is located in what Geographic Sector?

Zona Central

23

Who produces Don Maximinano?

Errázuriz

24

Aconcagua is located in the ___ Administrative Region.

Valparaíso

25

Chile's top red wine region

Maipo Valley

26

Austral Region is located in what Geographic Sector?

Zona Sur

27

Why is Carmenère pretty much non-existent in Bordeaux?

Difficult to graft.

28

___ is Chile's most-heavily planted sub-region.

Rapel Valley

29

Top 2 grapes of Curico

CS
SB

30

___ is the red-headed step child of Colchagua

Cachapoal

31

Atacama Region is located in what Geographic Sector?

Norte Chico

32

When does "vendimia" occur in the Southern Hemisphere?

Feb-April

33

T or F: growers in Chile are increasingly using rootstocks

True

34

What grape varietal is forbidden on Chilean wine labels?

País

35

Chile's latitude spans from ___ to ___?

17 - 53 * S

36

Highest peak in South America

Mount Aconcagua (Andes)

37

What is MOVI? Name 3 Members

"Movimiento de Viñateros Ind"; Association of producers with goal of making wine on a human scale (importance of size & personal attention to day to day winemaking)

Garage Wine Co.
Kingston Family V.
Villard

38

Rainfall ___ as you go S.

Increases

39

Delimited geographic area for Carignan

VIGNO

40

Chilean wine law mandates the use of ___ grapes.

Vitis Vinifera

41

Which sub-region is #1 in acreage under vine?

Maule

42

Grapes of Apalta

CS, Carmenère, Syrah

43

___ is the only country with a geographic designation of Pisco.

Peru

44

Carmenère does best in ___ soils.

Clay

45

What is the goal of the Vignadors de Carignan?

Committed to preserving the old vine Carignan that was planted after the 1939 EQ.

46

Major GF of Casablanca

Humboldt Current due to a gap in the Coastal Ranges.

47

___ is the sole producer of Rosario producing biodynamic ___.

a) Matetic
b) Syrah

48

Warmest region of the Central Valley

Rapel

49

___ is the S-most sub-region of the Central Valley.

Maule

50

Chile gains independence in ___ under ___.

a) 1818
b) Bernardo O'Higgins

51

Minimum ___% Grape, Origin & Vintage is required by law but what is more common? Why?

a) 75%
b) 85%
c) To comply with EU standards

52

To use "Costa", "EC" or "Andes" on a bottle of DO wine, the wine must contain ___% of grapes from named region.

85%

53

Why would a producer choose to do a Hot Fermentation in Chile?

Reduces bitterness & softens tannins in Carmenère

54

When is the DO System Created?

Enacted 1994; 1995 1st Vintage

55

Chile's 2 newest regions

Atacama (2012)
Austral (2012)

56

Aconcagua Valley DO Grapes & Styles for Costa, EC & Andes

Costa: WW (SB)
EC: BDX-blends
Andes: Grenache & Mourvèdre (too hot for CS)

57

___ is the highest growing region in Chile.

Elqui Valley DO; Moderating Influence/DTS

58

Where would you find the Area DOs of Peralillo, Marchigüe and Lolol?

Colchagua

59

Malleco is located in the ___ Administrative Region.

La Araucanía

60

___ is Chile's narrowest & most-mountainous region.

Coquimbo

61

Location ___ to ___ is more determinate of climate than ___ to ___. (Chile)

E to W
N to S

62

Name the Sub-Zones of Rapel

Colchagua
Cachapoal

63

Name the official & unofficial sub-zones of San Antonio Valley

Leyda DO
Lo Abarca
Rosario

64

___ are the most common DOs on labels.

Sub-Regions

65

Name 3 famous Carmenère wines

Casa Lapostolle (Lapostolle)
Purple Angel (Montes)
Carmin de Peumo (CyT)

66

Most vineyards in Limarí are located ___ of the Coastal Ranges.

West

67

Central Valley Region is located in what Geographic Sector?

Zona Central

68

Ovalle Area DO is located where?

Limarí

69

Sub-Regions of Sur N to S

Itata Valley
Bio Bio Valley
Malleco Valley

70

Pirque Area DO is located where?

Alto Maipo

71

Austral Grapes

SB, CH, PN

72

What is the Humboldt Current?

Cold water current that cools the air passing over it; limits precipitation & creates inversion layer/traps cold air near the surface; moderates climate/lower temps along the coastline/affects vineyards WEST of the Coastal Ranges.

73

Who produces Purple Angel? What is it?

a) Montes
b) Varietal Carmenère

74

Bordeaux and Burgundy grapes brought to Chile in the mid-___.

Mid-1800's

75

What famous Burgundy producer came to Maipo Valley in the 1990's?

William Fèvre

76

Bio-Bio is modernizing ___ than Itata

Quicker

77

Grapes for Pisco production.

Moscatel/Moscatel Rosado
Moscatel de Austria (Torrentes Sanjuanino)
PX
Torontel

78

Name the winery with their respective founders:
Lapostolle
Los Vascos
Almaviva
Seña
Errazuriz
Viña Aquitania
H. Araucano

a) Grand Marnier
b) Lafite-Rothschilde
c) CyT & Baron Philippe Rothschilde
d) Errazuriz & R. Mondavi
e) Eduardo Chadwick
f) Cos & Margaux
g) F. Lurton

79

Maipo Valley is located in the ___ Administrative Region.

Santiago

80

What vineyard is home to 100 y.o CS? Who owns it?

a) Manso de Velasco (Curico)
b) Miguel Torres

81

2 GFs of Puento Alto

Elevation
Gravel Soils

82

Minimum ABV for all Chilean wines

11.5%

83

2 Chilean Wines, ___ & ___, wine out against 2 Bordeaux Wines, ___ & ___, at the ___ Berlin Tasting.

a) Viñedo Chadwick
b) Seña
c) Lafite
d) Margaux
e) 2004

84

What was the effect of the 1939 Earthquake?

Carignan was planted in Maule
Consult & Moscatel planted in Itata

85

Muscat of Alexandria is called ___ in Chile.

Moscatel

86

Carrignan vines in Maule utilize what training method?

Cabeza (Head/Bush/Gobelet)

87

Name the sub-zones of Curico.

Teno DO
Lontué DO
*Named after T & L Rivers

88

Where is the producer Tabalí located?

Limarí Valley

89

In Chile, you're likely to find old vines of which grapes?

Carignan (Maule)
Cinsault (Itata)
Moscatel (Itata)

90

3 Basic Climates for WG in Chile

Norte Chico: Hot & Arid
Zona Central: Mediterranean
Zona Sur: Maritime


91

Grapes of Itata

Old Vine País, Cinsault & Moscatel

92

Name the 2 largest wine companies in Chile.

1. Concha y Toro
2. San Pedro

93

Unlike the rest of Chile, the new plantings of SB in Curico are being planted in the ___ instead of the ___.

a) Andes
b) Costa

94

Errázuriz top bottlings

Don Maximiniano: BDX
Kai: Carmenère

95

What is "Chilean Merlot"?

Carmenère (misidentified as Merlot until 1994)

96

Aconcagua is located in what Geographic Sector?

Zona Central

97

Elqui DO most important grape.

Syrah

98

At 2,200m, this producer lays claim to the highest vineyards of Chile. What grape?

a) Viñedos de Alcohuaz
b) Syrah

99

Name the regions of Chile from N to S.

Atacama
Coquimbo
Aconcagua
Central Valley
Sur
Austral

100

Where would one find the Area DOs of Vichuquén, Sagrada Familia & Rauco?

Curico

101

1st country in SA planted to vines by Spaniards.

Peru

102

There are ___ Administrative Regions of Chile. ___ of them produce wine.

a) 15
b) 9

103

___ River runs through Colchagua and is a tributary of the ___ River.

a) Tinguiririci River
b) Rapel River

104

The two most important producers of Aconcagua Valley.

Errázuriz
Seña (R. Mondavi x Errazuriz)

105

The ___ training system is used for ___ in Atacama.

a) Parron
b) Table Grapes

106

Viñedo Chadwick is made from what grapes?

CS-based + Carmenère

107

___ irrigation is traditional and ___ is modern.

a) Furrow
b) Drip

108

The ___ forms Chile's N. Border with Peru.

Atacama Desert

109

Bio-Bio Grapes

PN, CH, SB

110

Place the winemaker with his respective winery:
Marcelo Papa
Francisco Baettig
Filipe Muller
Rodrigo Soto

a) Concha y Toro
b) Errazuriz
c) Tabalí
d) Veramonte

111

The Area DOs of La Serena, Paiguano & Vicuña are located in ___.

Elqui Valley DO

112

Grapes 2 Grapes of Maipo Valley

CS
Carmenère

113

Viña Falernia produces ___ in ____.

a) "Alta Tierra" Syrah
b) Elqui Valley DO

114

Grape of Medio Maipo

Carmenère

115

#1 Grape of Chile

CS

116

Sur Region is located in what Geographic Sector?

Zona Sur

117

Top sites for Carmenère

Peumo DO (Cachapoal)
Los Lingues (Colchagua)
Apart (Colchagua)

118

Name the 5 Geographic Sectors of Chile. Which of them produce wine?

Norte Grande
Norte Chico*
Zona Central*
Zona Sur*
Zona Austral

*produce wine

119

The entire Casablanca Valley DO is categorized as what?

Costa

120

Aconcagua Climate

Mediterranean

121

In the ___'s, most of Peru's vineyards are converted to ___ production

a) 1700's
b) Pisco Production

122

Chile's 1st modern winery & oldest in operation.

V. Ochagavía

123

What is the Parron training system similar to?

Pergola

124

Has Chile ever been affected by Phylloxera?

Nope. Never. Never Will.

125

VIGNO is a ___ of ___.

a) Trademarked Brand
b) Vignadores of Carignan

126

Chilean wine law established ___ tiers of DO. What are they?

a) 4
b) Region, Sub-Region, Zone, Area*

*Progressively smaller categories of DOs with the same requirements.

127

What was Sauvignon Blanc mistaken for?

Friulano/Sauvignon Vert

128

Who produces "Close Apalta"? What is it?

a) Casa Lapostolle
b) Carmenère-based red

129

In the 1540's a Jesuit Friar plants ___ vines from ___.

a) País
b) Canary Islands

130

3 Rockstar Producers in Puento Alto

Concha y Toro "Don Melchior" Vineyard
Almaviva
Viñedo Chadwick

131

3 Major Cities of Chile

Valparaíso (Aconcagua)
Santiago (Central Valley)
Concepción (Sur)

132

In what sub-zone would you find > 1/3 of Chile's CS?

Colchagua

133

Soil of Apalta

Granite

134

Which 3 mega-producers account for 85% of Chile's domestic consumption?

Concha y Toro (Maipo)
San Pedro (Curico)
Santa Rita (Maipo)

135

Chile's oldest grape variety

País

136

Coquimbo Region is located in what Geographic Sector?

Norte Chico

137

La Serena Area DO is a ___ DO of ___ and produces ___.

a) Costa
b) Elqui Valley
c) SB

138

Name the sub-regions of Aconcagua N to S.

Aconcagua Valley DO
Casablanca Valley DO
San Antonio Valley DO

139

What is another name for the Cabeza training system? What is it used for? Where?

Head-Trained
Carignan
Maule V. DO

140

___ is a cooked/partially-fermented beverage.

Chicha

141

Soil of Puento Alto DO

Gravel

142

In Chile, mountains ___ as one goes S.

Diminish

143

The world's southern-most vineyards are located in ___ along the ___. However the wines have not yet been released commercially.

a) Austral
b) 46th Parallel)

144

País is called ___ in Argentina and ___ in CA.

a) Criolla Chica
b) Mission

145

Cachapoal Valley is located ___ of Colchagua and therefore has a ___ climate.

a) East
b) Warmer

146

Which mountain range in Chile creates a RFE for the vineyards?

Coastal Mountains

147

Coquimbo is located in the ___ Geographic Sector.

Norte Chico

148

___ is a cheap blend for local consumption made from ___ grape and often ___ in style.

a) Pipeño
b) País
c) Frizzante

149

The ___ affects vineyards ___ of the Coastal Range, providing a cooling effect.

a) Humboldt Current
b) West

150

Why would a producer choose to de-leaf in Chile? What are the effects?

To get rid of pyrazines in Carmenère through increased ripeness; burns acidity/aromas & adds bitterness

151

What is Los Lingues

Unofficial sub-zone of Colchagua located within the San Fernando Area DO.

152

To put VIGNO on a label, the vines must be ___ years old, contain ___% Carignan, age for a minimum ___ and must be ___.

a) 30 y.o.
b) 65%
c) 2 years
d) dry-farmed

153

Itata is located in the ___ Administrative Region.

Bio-Bio

154

Who is Pinochet?

Dictator who reforms and liberalizes the free market.

155

Clos des Fous is a wine produced from ___ by ___ in ___.

a) CS
b) Pedro Parra
c) Alto Cachapoal

156

Name one of the few regions in Chile with Calcareous Soils.

Limarí

157

Name the coolest DO of Aconcagua

San Antonio Valley DO (cooler than Casablanca!)

158

"Kai" is produced from ___ by ___.

a) Carmenère
b) Errázuriz

159

3 major soil types of Chile Costa/EC/Andes

Costa: Granite (+ schist/slate)
EC: Clay & Loam (volcanic origin); alluvial gravels
Andes: Volcanic w/ LS

160

Where is the giant producer San Pedro located?

Curico

161

Maipo Valley has no ___.

Costa Areas

162

Santa Rita, Neyen and Koyle are producers found in what sub-region?

Colchagua

163

Maipo Valley is split up into 3 Geographic Features. What are they and what grapes are associated with them?

Alto Maipo (E): CS/BDX
Medio Maipo: Carmenère
Maipo Costa/Baja

164

Most vines in Colchagua are located on the ___ in the ___.

a) Valley Floor
b) EC

165

Who is responsible for introducing Temperature Control, S.S., New Barriques, P.P., VSP Trellising & general winery hygiene to Chile?

Miguel Torres

166

___ is the E-most area of Cachapoal known for wines from ___ & ___.

a) Alta Cachapoal
b) CS & Syrah

167

What is Apalta?

Unofficial sub-zone of Colchagua located within the Santa Cruz Area DO.

168

There is no ___ in Elqui Valley DO.

Entre-Cordilleras

169

Training System found in Itata

Dry-Farmed Bush Vines
*Think old-school viticulture!

170

#1 grape of Itata

País (Old Vine)

171

T or F: Casablanca is located along the Casablanca R.

FALSE: there is no Casablanca River

172

Rivers of Itata

Itata & Ñuble Rivers

173

___ is responsible for planting French vine cuttings around Santiago.

Gay

174

Name the top 4 R grapes & the top 2 W grapes

R: CS, Merlot, Carmenère, Syrah
W: CH, SB

175

Who produces "Ocio" PN? Where?

a) Cono Sur
b) Casablanca Valley

176

The Camanchaca Fog affects what region of Chile?

Limarí DO

177

What is the greatest threat to viticulture in Malleco?

Civil Unrest

178

Cachapoal Valley Top Grape

Carmenère

179

Atacama is ___ on the Winkler Scale

Region III

180

What is another name for secano?

Dry-Farmed/No Irrigation

181

Label terms permitted for DO wines

Reserve
Gran Reserva
Selección
Reserva Especial
Reserva Privada
Gran Vino
Superior

182

There is a loophole in the requirements for VIGNO. What is it?

Grafted Carignan qualifies, therefore you can have a young Carignan vine grafted onto an old País RS.

183

Why is viticulture at risk in Atacama and Coquimbo?

Drought; Irrigation is necessary

184

What is Bernardo O'Higgins famous for?

Leads Chile to independence in 1818.

185

Carmenère ripens ___ than Merlot.

Later

186

Who produces Casa Real? What is it?

Santa Rita
BDX-blend from Maipo

187

Coquimbo's least important DO.

Choapa Valley DO

188

Seña is a collaboration between ___ & ___.

Robert Mondavi & Errázuriz

189

___ is the winemaker at Concha y Toro.

Marcelo Papa

190

The ___ is a major GF of Limarí DO that rolls in via the Limarí River providing a moderating/cooling effect.

Camanchaca Fog

191

Maule Subzones

Claro Valley
Loncomilla
Tutuvén

192

T or F: you are unlikely to see "Curico" on a bottle of wine

False: many producers opt to leave out the sub-region of Curico

193

In what region are the Nahuelbuta Mountains a GF?

Bio-Bio (Sur): Part of the Coastal Ranges; Blocks Maritime Influence

194

Name the Sub-regions of Coquimbo N to S.

Elqui V. DO
Limarí V. DO
Choapa V. DO

195

Why do growers use rootstocks in Casablanca?

Sandy Soils are a magnet for Nematodes.

196

Pisco Sour in Peru vs. Chile.

Peru: Pisco, Lemon Juice, SS, Egg White
Chile: NO EGG

197

Top Area DO of Maipo Valley

Puento Alto DO

198

Peumo Area DO is synonymous with what grape?

Carmenère

199

Chile is the ___-largest producer of wine.

2nd (after Chile)

200

Name the wine to the producer:
Alta Tierra
Don Melchior
Don Maximiniano
Casa Real
Sol de Sol
Clos des Fous
Carmin de Peumo
Herencia

a) Viña Falernia
b) Concha y Torro
c) Errazuriz
d) Santa Rita
e) Viña Aquitania
f) Pedro Parra
g) Concha y Torro
h) Santa Carolina

201

Leyda DO is synonymous with which grape?

SB

202

What white grapes might you find in Elqui Valley?

SB (Costa)
PX (Andes); as a dry WW

203

What is the significance of River Valleys in Chile?

They bring cold breezes & fog creating a maritime influence.

204

T or F: Blending is permitted between Colchagua and Cachapoal for standard Rapel Valley Wines

True

205

1645 Spain puts a ___ on New World Colonies due to fear of decrease in demand for wines from the Iberian Peninsula.

Planting Ban

206

___% of Chile's plantings are ___.

a) 75%
b) Red

207

T or F: Under Chilean wine law, sweetness levels are in line with EU.

True

Seco: max. 4 g/l RS (9 g/l)*
Semi-Seco: 4-12 g/l RS (18 g/l)*
Semi-Dulce: 12-45 g/l RS
Dulce: > 45 g/l RS

*Total Acidity is within 2 g/l total RS

208

The Humboldt Current flows ___

North

209

Aconcagua's most premier zone

Casablanca

210

___ sets up repository of pre-phylloxera VV vines in the ___'s

a) Claudio Gay
b) 1800's

211

___ is the only major wine region in the world to remain completely phylloxera-free.

Chile

212

Errazuriz is located in the Area DO of ___ in the ___ Valley DO.

a) Panquehue
b) Aconcagua Valley DO

213

Name the requirements for Reserva, Reserva Especial, Reserva Privada and Gran Reserva

Reserva: min. 12% abv
Reserva Especial: min 12% abv + oak aging

Reserva Privada: 12.5% abv
Gran Reserva: 12.5% abv + oak aging

214

Where is Chimbarongo Area DO?

Colchagua