Flashcards in Chile Deck (214):
Sub-Regions of Central Valley N to S
Norte Chico: Hot/Arid
Soils of Limarí
Calcareous: Red Clay over LS (Coonawarra-like)
Soils of Apalta
What is chicha?
A cooked/partially-fermented beverage.
Rapel Valley is located in the ___ Administrative Region.
Copiapó Valley DO & Huasco Valley DO are located where?
Cautín Valley & Osorno Valley are located where?
San Antonio is located ___ of the Coastal Ranges.
International investment pours into Chile in the from ___ to ___, the years after Chile transitions to a democratic government.
1980's to 2000
Why would a producer choose to employ Mixro-Oxygenation for Carmenère?
Carmenère is reductive.
Top 2 grapes of Casablanca
Where are Claro Valley, Loncomilla & Tutuvén located?
What are the Cordilleras de la Costa?
Coastal Range (Chile)
Grape of Limarí
Villard, Vermahnte and Kingston Family Vineyards are producers located in ___.
Casablanca Valley DO
In 2012, what 3 divisions for DO wines were established?
Entre Cordilleras ("between the mountains")
Top 2 Producers of Malleco
What do the quality designations "Reserva", "Gran Reserva", "Selección" and Reserva Especial" indicate?
Higher ABV & Longer Oak-Aging
*Legally defined yet no real practical meaning!
PN & CH
Who is the father of Chilean Wine?
Aconcagua Region is located in what Geographic Sector?
Who produces Don Maximinano?
Aconcagua is located in the ___ Administrative Region.
Chile's top red wine region
Austral Region is located in what Geographic Sector?
Why is Carmenère pretty much non-existent in Bordeaux?
Difficult to graft.
___ is Chile's most-heavily planted sub-region.
Top 2 grapes of Curico
___ is the red-headed step child of Colchagua
Atacama Region is located in what Geographic Sector?
When does "vendimia" occur in the Southern Hemisphere?
T or F: growers in Chile are increasingly using rootstocks
What grape varietal is forbidden on Chilean wine labels?
Chile's latitude spans from ___ to ___?
17 - 53 * S
Highest peak in South America
Mount Aconcagua (Andes)
What is MOVI? Name 3 Members
"Movimiento de Viñateros Ind"; Association of producers with goal of making wine on a human scale (importance of size & personal attention to day to day winemaking)
Garage Wine Co.
Kingston Family V.
Rainfall ___ as you go S.
Delimited geographic area for Carignan
Chilean wine law mandates the use of ___ grapes.
Which sub-region is #1 in acreage under vine?
Grapes of Apalta
CS, Carmenère, Syrah
___ is the only country with a geographic designation of Pisco.
Carmenère does best in ___ soils.
What is the goal of the Vignadors de Carignan?
Committed to preserving the old vine Carignan that was planted after the 1939 EQ.
Major GF of Casablanca
Humboldt Current due to a gap in the Coastal Ranges.
___ is the sole producer of Rosario producing biodynamic ___.
Warmest region of the Central Valley
___ is the S-most sub-region of the Central Valley.
Chile gains independence in ___ under ___.
b) Bernardo O'Higgins
Minimum ___% Grape, Origin & Vintage is required by law but what is more common? Why?
c) To comply with EU standards
To use "Costa", "EC" or "Andes" on a bottle of DO wine, the wine must contain ___% of grapes from named region.
Why would a producer choose to do a Hot Fermentation in Chile?
Reduces bitterness & softens tannins in Carmenère
When is the DO System Created?
Enacted 1994; 1995 1st Vintage
Chile's 2 newest regions
Aconcagua Valley DO Grapes & Styles for Costa, EC & Andes
Costa: WW (SB)
Andes: Grenache & Mourvèdre (too hot for CS)
___ is the highest growing region in Chile.
Elqui Valley DO; Moderating Influence/DTS
Where would you find the Area DOs of Peralillo, Marchigüe and Lolol?
Malleco is located in the ___ Administrative Region.
___ is Chile's narrowest & most-mountainous region.
Location ___ to ___ is more determinate of climate than ___ to ___. (Chile)
E to W
N to S
Name the Sub-Zones of Rapel
Name the official & unofficial sub-zones of San Antonio Valley
___ are the most common DOs on labels.
Name 3 famous Carmenère wines
Casa Lapostolle (Lapostolle)
Purple Angel (Montes)
Carmin de Peumo (CyT)
Most vineyards in Limarí are located ___ of the Coastal Ranges.
Central Valley Region is located in what Geographic Sector?
Ovalle Area DO is located where?
Sub-Regions of Sur N to S
Bio Bio Valley
Pirque Area DO is located where?
SB, CH, PN
What is the Humboldt Current?
Cold water current that cools the air passing over it; limits precipitation & creates inversion layer/traps cold air near the surface; moderates climate/lower temps along the coastline/affects vineyards WEST of the Coastal Ranges.
Who produces Purple Angel? What is it?
b) Varietal Carmenère
Bordeaux and Burgundy grapes brought to Chile in the mid-___.
What famous Burgundy producer came to Maipo Valley in the 1990's?
Bio-Bio is modernizing ___ than Itata
Grapes for Pisco production.
Moscatel de Austria (Torrentes Sanjuanino)
Name the winery with their respective founders:
a) Grand Marnier
c) CyT & Baron Philippe Rothschilde
d) Errazuriz & R. Mondavi
e) Eduardo Chadwick
f) Cos & Margaux
g) F. Lurton
Maipo Valley is located in the ___ Administrative Region.
What vineyard is home to 100 y.o CS? Who owns it?
a) Manso de Velasco (Curico)
b) Miguel Torres
2 GFs of Puento Alto
Minimum ABV for all Chilean wines
2 Chilean Wines, ___ & ___, wine out against 2 Bordeaux Wines, ___ & ___, at the ___ Berlin Tasting.
a) Viñedo Chadwick
What was the effect of the 1939 Earthquake?
Carignan was planted in Maule
Consult & Moscatel planted in Itata
Muscat of Alexandria is called ___ in Chile.
Carrignan vines in Maule utilize what training method?
Name the sub-zones of Curico.
*Named after T & L Rivers
Where is the producer Tabalí located?
In Chile, you're likely to find old vines of which grapes?
3 Basic Climates for WG in Chile
Norte Chico: Hot & Arid
Zona Central: Mediterranean
Zona Sur: Maritime
Grapes of Itata
Old Vine País, Cinsault & Moscatel
Name the 2 largest wine companies in Chile.
1. Concha y Toro
2. San Pedro
Unlike the rest of Chile, the new plantings of SB in Curico are being planted in the ___ instead of the ___.
Errázuriz top bottlings
Don Maximiniano: BDX
What is "Chilean Merlot"?
Carmenère (misidentified as Merlot until 1994)
Aconcagua is located in what Geographic Sector?
Elqui DO most important grape.
At 2,200m, this producer lays claim to the highest vineyards of Chile. What grape?
a) Viñedos de Alcohuaz
Name the regions of Chile from N to S.
Where would one find the Area DOs of Vichuquén, Sagrada Familia & Rauco?
1st country in SA planted to vines by Spaniards.
There are ___ Administrative Regions of Chile. ___ of them produce wine.
___ River runs through Colchagua and is a tributary of the ___ River.
a) Tinguiririci River
b) Rapel River
The two most important producers of Aconcagua Valley.
Seña (R. Mondavi x Errazuriz)
The ___ training system is used for ___ in Atacama.
b) Table Grapes
Viñedo Chadwick is made from what grapes?
CS-based + Carmenère
___ irrigation is traditional and ___ is modern.
The ___ forms Chile's N. Border with Peru.
PN, CH, SB
Place the winemaker with his respective winery:
a) Concha y Toro
The Area DOs of La Serena, Paiguano & Vicuña are located in ___.
Elqui Valley DO
Grapes 2 Grapes of Maipo Valley
Viña Falernia produces ___ in ____.
a) "Alta Tierra" Syrah
b) Elqui Valley DO
Grape of Medio Maipo
#1 Grape of Chile
Sur Region is located in what Geographic Sector?
Top sites for Carmenère
Peumo DO (Cachapoal)
Los Lingues (Colchagua)
Name the 5 Geographic Sectors of Chile. Which of them produce wine?
The entire Casablanca Valley DO is categorized as what?
In the ___'s, most of Peru's vineyards are converted to ___ production
b) Pisco Production
Chile's 1st modern winery & oldest in operation.
What is the Parron training system similar to?
Has Chile ever been affected by Phylloxera?
Nope. Never. Never Will.
VIGNO is a ___ of ___.
a) Trademarked Brand
b) Vignadores of Carignan
Chilean wine law established ___ tiers of DO. What are they?
b) Region, Sub-Region, Zone, Area*
*Progressively smaller categories of DOs with the same requirements.
What was Sauvignon Blanc mistaken for?
Who produces "Close Apalta"? What is it?
a) Casa Lapostolle
b) Carmenère-based red
In the 1540's a Jesuit Friar plants ___ vines from ___.
b) Canary Islands
3 Rockstar Producers in Puento Alto
Concha y Toro "Don Melchior" Vineyard
3 Major Cities of Chile
Santiago (Central Valley)
In what sub-zone would you find > 1/3 of Chile's CS?
Soil of Apalta
Which 3 mega-producers account for 85% of Chile's domestic consumption?
Concha y Toro (Maipo)
San Pedro (Curico)
Santa Rita (Maipo)
Chile's oldest grape variety
Coquimbo Region is located in what Geographic Sector?
La Serena Area DO is a ___ DO of ___ and produces ___.
b) Elqui Valley
Name the sub-regions of Aconcagua N to S.
Aconcagua Valley DO
Casablanca Valley DO
San Antonio Valley DO
What is another name for the Cabeza training system? What is it used for? Where?
Maule V. DO
___ is a cooked/partially-fermented beverage.
Soil of Puento Alto DO
In Chile, mountains ___ as one goes S.
The world's southern-most vineyards are located in ___ along the ___. However the wines have not yet been released commercially.
b) 46th Parallel)
País is called ___ in Argentina, ___ in CA & ___ in the Canary Islands
a) Criolla Chica
c) Listan Prieto
Cachapoal Valley is located ___ of Colchagua and therefore has a ___ climate.
Which mountain range in Chile creates a RFE for the vineyards?
Coquimbo is located in the ___ Geographic Sector.
___ is a cheap blend for local consumption made from ___ grape and often ___ in style.
The ___ affects vineyards ___ of the Coastal Range, providing a cooling effect.
a) Humboldt Current
Why would a producer choose to de-leaf in Chile? What are the effects?
To get rid of pyrazines in Carmenère through increased ripeness; burns acidity/aromas & adds bitterness
What is Los Lingues
Unofficial sub-zone of Colchagua located within the San Fernando Area DO.
To put VIGNO on a label, the vines must be ___ years old, contain ___% Carignan, age for a minimum ___ and must be ___.
a) 30 y.o.
c) 2 years
Itata is located in the ___ Administrative Region.
Who is Pinochet?
Dictator who reforms and liberalizes the free market.
Clos des Fous is a wine produced from ___ by ___ in ___.
b) Pedro Parra
c) Alto Cachapoal
Name one of the few regions in Chile with Calcareous Soils.
Name the coolest DO of Aconcagua
San Antonio Valley DO (cooler than Casablanca!)
"Kai" is produced from ___ by ___.
3 major soil types of Chile Costa/EC/Andes
Costa: Granite (+ schist/slate)
EC: Clay & Loam (volcanic origin); alluvial gravels
Andes: Volcanic w/ LS
Where is the giant producer San Pedro located?
Maipo Valley has no ___.
Santa Rita, Neyen and Koyle are producers found in what sub-region?
Maipo Valley is split up into 3 Geographic Features. What are they and what grapes are associated with them?
Alto Maipo (E): CS/BDX
Medio Maipo: Carmenère
Most vines in Colchagua are located on the ___ in the ___.
a) Valley Floor
Who is responsible for introducing Temperature Control, S.S., New Barriques, P.P., VSP Trellising & general winery hygiene to Chile?
___ is the E-most area of Cachapoal known for wines from ___ & ___.
a) Alta Cachapoal
b) CS & Syrah
What is Apalta?
Unofficial sub-zone of Colchagua located within the Santa Cruz Area DO.
There is no ___ in Elqui Valley DO.
Training System found in Itata
Dry-Farmed Bush Vines
*Think old-school viticulture!
#1 grape of Itata
País (Old Vine)
T or F: Casablanca is located along the Casablanca R.
FALSE: there is no Casablanca River
Rivers of Itata
Itata & Ñuble Rivers
___ is responsible for planting French vine cuttings around Santiago.
Name the top 4 R grapes & the top 2 W grapes
R: CS, Merlot, Carmenère, Syrah
W: CH, SB
Who produces "Ocio" PN? Where?
a) Cono Sur
b) Casablanca Valley
The Camanchaca Fog affects what region of Chile?
What is the greatest threat to viticulture in Malleco?
Cachapoal Valley Top Grape
Atacama is ___ on the Winkler Scale
What is another name for secano?
Label terms permitted for DO wines
There is a loophole in the requirements for VIGNO. What is it?
Grafted Carignan qualifies, therefore you can have a young Carignan vine grafted onto an old País RS.
Why is viticulture at risk in Atacama and Coquimbo?
Drought; Irrigation is necessary
What is Bernardo O'Higgins famous for?
Leads Chile to independence in 1818.
Carmenère ripens ___ than Merlot.
Who produces Casa Real? What is it?
BDX-blend from Maipo
Coquimbo's least important DO.
Choapa Valley DO
Seña is a collaboration between ___ & ___.
Robert Mondavi & Errázuriz
___ is the winemaker at Concha y Toro.
The ___ is a major GF of Limarí DO that rolls in via the Limarí River providing a moderating/cooling effect.
T or F: you are unlikely to see "Curico" on a bottle of wine
False: many producers opt to leave out the sub-region of Curico
In what region are the Nahuelbuta Mountains a GF?
Bio-Bio (Sur): Part of the Coastal Ranges; Blocks Maritime Influence
Name the Sub-regions of Coquimbo N to S.
Elqui V. DO
Limarí V. DO
Choapa V. DO
Why do growers use rootstocks in Casablanca?
Sandy Soils are a magnet for Nematodes.
Pisco Sour in Peru vs. Chile.
Peru: Pisco, Lemon Juice, SS, Egg White
Chile: NO EGG
Top Area DO of Maipo Valley
Puento Alto DO
Peumo Area DO is synonymous with what grape?
Chile is the ___-largest producer of wine.
2nd (after Chile)
Name the wine to the producer:
Sol de Sol
Clos des Fous
Carmin de Peumo
a) Viña Falernia
b) Concha y Torro
d) Santa Rita
e) Viña Aquitania
f) Pedro Parra
g) Concha y Torro
h) Santa Carolina
Leyda DO is synonymous with which grape?
What white grapes might you find in Elqui Valley?
PX (Andes); as a dry WW
What is the significance of River Valleys in Chile?
They bring cold breezes & fog creating a maritime influence.
T or F: Blending is permitted between Colchagua and Cachapoal for standard Rapel Valley Wines
1645 Spain puts a ___ on New World Colonies due to fear of decrease in demand for wines from the Iberian Peninsula.
___% of Chile's plantings are ___.
T or F: Under Chilean wine law, sweetness levels are in line with EU.
Seco: max. 4 g/l RS (9 g/l)*
Semi-Seco: 4-12 g/l RS (18 g/l)*
Semi-Dulce: 12-45 g/l RS
Dulce: > 45 g/l RS
*Total Acidity is within 2 g/l total RS
The Humboldt Current flows ___
Aconcagua's most premier zone
___ sets up repository of pre-phylloxera VV vines in the ___'s
a) Claudio Gay
___ is the only major wine region in the world to remain completely phylloxera-free.
Errazuriz is located in the Area DO of ___ in the ___ Valley DO.
b) Aconcagua Valley DO
Name the requirements for Reserva, Reserva Especial, Reserva Privada and Gran Reserva
Reserva: min. 12% abv
Reserva Especial: min 12% abv + oak aging
Reserva Privada: 12.5% abv
Gran Reserva: 12.5% abv + oak aging