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Flashcards in chp 1 Deck (27):
1

When is the onset of childhood stuttering the highest?

Between the 2nd and 4th birthday

2

Stuttering usually begins in childhood between what ages?

30 and 36months

3

What is the most efficient and effective strategy for preventing stuttering?

early identification and treatment

4

What percent of preschoolers continue to stutter after the first year or two of onset?

20-25%

5

If stuttering persists past.......

puberty it can become a life long disability

6

A substantial percentage of young preschoolers who stutter are later reported to have what 4 things?

1. immature articulatory or phonological skills
2. speech
3. language
4. learning difficulties

7

INDICATORS OF EARLY CHILDHOOD STUTTERING:
What kinds of speech disruptions are eliciting parental concerns?

1. monosyllabic whole-and part word repetitions
2. sound prolongations and tense pauses
3. fixed artiulatory positions
4. single syllable repetitions

8

Remission of stuttering can happen at any age but at least half occurs when?

within 2 years

9

Is there a family history of persistent stuttering?

A child from a family with a history of persistent stuttering is much more likely to continue to stutter for at least 3 year post onset.

10

Indicators of early childhood stuttering, what are 4 questions?

1. what kinds of speech disruptions are eliciting parental concerns?
2. Have the child's speech disruptions changed since parents first became concerned?
3. How long have parents been concerned about child's fluency?
4. How valid do parents' concerns about stuttering appear to be?

11

INDICATORS OF NEED FOR TREATMENT
What are 4 questions?

1. Is there a family history of persistent stuttering?
2. Are the child's speech and language abilities age-appropriate?
3. Have the child's speech disruptions changed from predominantly tow- or three-unit, seemingly effortless repetitions, to sound prolongations, tense pauses, and lengthy repetitions that are often accompanied by muscle tension and ancillary facial and body movements?
4. Does the child often react emotionally or express concern about his or her disfluent speech?

12

INDICATORS OF NEED FOR TREATMENT:
T or F
Kids who stutter are more likely to have speech, language, and learning disabilities?

T

13

INDICATORS OF NEED FOR TREATMENT:
If a child's disfluencies are accompanied by what 5 things for more than a year, the child has an increased risk that stuttering will persist for life?

1. muscle tension
2. interruptions
cessation of:
3. articulator movement
4. airflow
5. phonation

14

What do emotional responses potentially tell us about therapy?

The stuttering is evolving into a more complex/severe problem that can be more challenging to treat.

15

CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS AND TESTING:
4 steps for a diagnostic plan for preschoolers?

1. observe/ video recording of child/parent interaction
2. clinician joins parent child interaction (see how child responds)
3. alternate speech-language tests with games (assess receptive language first)
4. compare child with clinician VS child with parent

16

CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS AND TESTING:
What are 4 things you can do if the child has not stuttered or stuttered infrequently?

1. story retell
2. increase communicative stress by rushing the child
3. stimulate emotionally or excite the child
4. audiometric screening

17

Record samples on _______ _____ with _______ ________ and while engaged in different speaking tasks.

different days
different partners

18

How many syllables should you count in a sample?

500 to 1000

19

Word count may be better for two and three year old children, but syllable might be better for who?

children whose utterances include a sizable percentage (>25%) of multi-syllable words.

20

Procedure A

-count each syllable or word only once (and calculate the number of disfluencies)
-count the number of SLD's (stutter like disfluencies)

21

SLD
Stuttering-like disfluencies

within-word repetitions, monosyllabic word repetitions having two or more iterations, sound prolongations or dysrhythmic phonation, tense pauses, or any other type of disfluency that is perceived to involve excessive muscle tension or effort in it's production.

22

Procedure B

-only syllables are used in assessing a sample's disfluencies
-must include a minimum of 500 syllables

23

Supplementary measures

-the % of total disfluencies that were SLD's
-the % of SLR's (two or more iterations)
-average # of iterations found in 10randomly selected SLR's and the largest # found i one SLR
-the % of disfluencies clustering on the same or adjacent syllables or words, and the average # of disfluencies per cluster
-the % of SLD's that were accompanied by accessory behaviors in 10 randomly selected SLD's
-mean duration of 10 randomly selected, dysrhythmic phonation and of 10 tense pauses

24

Mairi 1997

Children who stop stuttering without receiving treatment within 2 years of stuttering onset evidence decreases in their SLD's during the first 15 months following stuttering onset.

25

What are 3 signs that treatment should begin without delay?

1. the extent of the communication disability
2. the distress of the child/client/family
3. the risk of the child continuing to stutter

26

What % of total disfluencies would qualify a child as being at risk or having a stuttering problem?

10%

27

What are some common issues child who stutter might have?

-failure to use age appropriate language forms (phonology)
-LLD is common