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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (44):
1

Causes of stuttering

emotional
emotional anxiety
genetics
physical trauma
neurological differences

2

What is stuttering?

lack of fluency
disjointed speech
repetitions
getting stuck
drawn out sound
you know it when you hear it

3

What are the 2 divisions of stuttering

Core
Normal

4

What are the 3 parts of the core division?

Primary
within word
stuttering like

5

What are the 3 parts of the normal division?

Between word
accessory
secondary

6

What are the 5 core stutters?

1. Syllable Repetition (SLR)
2. Sound Repetition (SR)
3. Block (B)
4. Prolongation (P)
5. Broken word (BW) (/)

7

SLR

Syllable repetition

8

SR

Sound repetition

9

B

block
moment of silence

10

P

Prolongation
pressing of sound

11

BW

Broken word

12

What are the 4 normal stutters?

1. Interjection (I)
2. Revision (R)
3. Phrase Repetition (PR)
4. Word Repetition (WR)

13

I

Interjection

14

R

Revision

15

PR

Phrase repetition

16

WR

word repetition

17

T or F
Stuttering is highly changeable?

T

18

What are 2 characteristics that are classic but not visible/ audible behaviors?

1. Affective (emotional) reaction: fear or anxiety, etc.
2. Cognitive reaction: word avoidance, anticipation avoidance behaviors, word substitutions, self regard.

19

Affective and Cognitive reactions are what?

Core and not visible behaviors

20

Give one example of a reaction to a stutter?

Concommitant behavior

21

What is a concomitant behavior?

It features secondary behaviors that are visible. The physical action can help a person move on from a stutter. The brain may get used to this behavior and then stop working.

22

T or F
Can you use a test and not transcription for stuttering?

NO

23

How many words do you need for your sample size?

100

24

About what percent of all children go through a period of stuttering lasting for 6 months or more?

5%

25

What is the prevalence of chronic stuttering around the globe?

1%

26

What are the 4 core features of normal stuttering?

Word repetition
phrase repetition
Interjections
Revisions

27

About what percent of all children will pull up with a phonology dx?

8-9%

28

About what percent of the 8-9% of children with a phonology dx will be severe enough to need tx?

80% of the 8-9%

29

Of the 8-9% with a phonology dx, what percent will have academic problems?

of the 8-9%, 50-70% will have academic problems

30

Phonology dx's are a _____ _____!

big deal! They have long lasting effects

31

What percent of kids will have an SLI?

2-8%

32

What percent of kids will have a voice dx?

6-23%

33

Of the 6-23% of kids with a voice dx what percent will be caused by nodules?

10%

34

What percent of adults have a voice dx?

2.5%

35

What percent of adults have a language dx?

2.5% (this includes people with dementia, autism, etc)

36

1 in every ____ children are born with a craniofacial dx?

500

37

Of the 1% of people globally who stutter, what percent will not get better from tx and what percent will have some befit?

30%

70% better but not cured.

38

Successful stuttering therapy for adults can be contributed to a combination of what three things?

Behavioral
Affective and
cognitive change

39

Efficacy and effectiveness for children comes from what four types of studies?

1. fluency shaping
2. operant or response contingent approaches
3. language based approaches
4. indirect approaches

40

child is taught to change the entirety of speech production though stretched vowels consonants and easy or smooth onset of speech.

fluency shaping

41

speech fluency is increased and stuttering is decreased through reinforcement and punishment

operant or response contingent approaches

42

spontaneous fluency in utterances of increasing length and complexity is practiced and reinforced.

language based approaches

43

turn switching pauses of increased duration and reduced rate of speech used by parents and teachers

indirect approaches.

44

What are said to be the only responsible approaches for stuttering clients?

fluency shaping
and operant approaches