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What are the 4 subfields of anthropology?

1. Archeology
2. Linguistic
3. Physical or biological
4. Cultural anthropology

1

The study of language and it's relation to culture.

Anthropological linguistics

2


The scientific and humanistic study of human beings.
1. A comparative science
2. A holistic science
3. A humanistic science

Anthropology

3

Judging other cultures from the perspective of ones own culture. The notion that ones own culture is more beautiful, rational, and nearer to perfection than any other.


Ethnocentrism

4


A group of people who depend on one another for survival or well-being as well as the relationships among such people, including their own status and roles.

Society

5

The learned behaviors and symbols that allow people to live in groups; the primary means by which humans adapt to their environment; the ways of life characteristic of a particular human society.

Culture

6

1944- said Anthropology provides a scientific basis for dealing with crucial dilemma of the world today.

Clyde kluckhohn

7


Material remains, dig and discover and then deconstruct the remains.
They look at patterns of contemporary people and also at pyramids.

Archeology

8

Looks at human evolution based on the remains found by archeologist.

Physical anthropology (biological)

9

3 subfields of physical anthropology

1. Human variation
2. Primatology
3.paleoanthropology

10

Race, natural environment, altitude, nutrition and disease

Human variation

11


Primate, chimpanzee, orangoutang, gorilla, barnabas- they look at the similarities and differences.

Primatology

12

The study of human evolution on the basis of fossil records.

Paleoanthropology

13

Looks at the entire communication, focusing on what people say.

Linguistic Anthropology

14

Study language change and how languages are related.

Historical linguistic

15

Structural linguistic, they look at the formal structure Of language. They create records of language to transcribe, they use phonetic symbols.

Descriptive linguistic

16

Language, dialect and varieties accent.
Also deal with social class

Socio-linguistic

17

The study of human thought, behavior, and life ways that are learned rather than genetically transmitted and that are typical of groups of people.

Cultural anthropology

18

Global distribution of people associated with each other by history, kinship, friendship, and webs of mutual understandings.

Ethnoscape

19

The major research tool of cultural anthropology; includes both fieldwork among people in a society and the written results of such fieldwork.

Ethnography

20

Examining societies using concepts, categories, and distinctions that are meaningful to members of that culture.

Emic ethnography

21

Examining societies using concepts, categories and rules derived from science; an outsiders perspective.

Etic ethnography

22

The attempt to find general principles or laws that govern cultural phenomena.

Ethnology

23

Each culture must be understood in terms of the values and ideas of that culture. Each culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture.

Cultural relativism

24

Belief that ones culture is better than all other cultures. Measures other cultures by the degree to which they live up to one's own cultural standards.

Ethnocentrism

25

The dominant groups take action over a minority group.

Etc: colonization, slavery

Culture imperialism

26

Geographical graduations
(No discrete boundaries) continuous variations

Continuous vs discontinuous variations

Variations exist beyond a few visible superficial traits. Skin color

Clines

27

The actual process of the things moving towards the goal.

Unidirectional

Teleology

28

Taxonomy> category > race > rank

*emerged in the 17th century among scholars
*a deeply embedded ideology ( false belief) often manipulated
*about power & privilege
*legitimize social inequality as physical indicators of evolutionary rank.

Race

29

How do we acquire human variation (4)process
Darwinian evolution

1. Mutation: source of new gene- characteristic
2. Natural selection: interaction between gene trade & natural environment.
3. Gene flow: interaction of different population - produce off spring
4. Genetic drift: founders effect- the original population is changed bc of natural disaster.