Chpt. 2, Early Societies Flashcards Preview

Barron's AP World > Chpt. 2, Early Societies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chpt. 2, Early Societies Deck (30):
1

aspects of a civilization

1. economic system based at least partly on trade and specialized labor
2. a government that provides leadership and enforces laws
3. a social system that is hierarchical, class-based, and to some degree urbanized
4. a moral or ethical code

2

Sumer

a delta of fertile soil in the southernmost reaches of Mesopotamia that was part of the fertile crescent

3

Fertile Crescent

part of a larger belt of land between Mesopotamia and Egypt in which one of the earliest civilizations of Southwest Asia began

4

city-states

small, regional kingdoms composed of a city and the land surrounding it

5

ziggurat

a multi-tiered temple whose height was designed to bring glory to the gods and to its builders

6

polytheistic

believing in more than one god

7

Epic of Gilgamesh

the first epic in world literature, it was part of Sumerian religion

8

Sargon the Great

a Semitic invader who united the Sumerian city-states around 2,300 BC, establishing the short-lived Akkadian Empire

9

Akkadian Empire (capital Akkad)

established by Sargon the Great, this lasted only 100 years but succeeded in spreading Sumerian culture throughout the Fertile Crescent

10

Code of Hammurabi

law code set down by Hammurabi, ruler of Babylon; it dealt with issues of family, business, and criminal law

11

Menes

a king of upper Egypt who united lower and upper Egypt around 3,100 BC; until this time they had always been divided

12

theocracy

a government that is based on religion

13

The Old Kingom (3,100-2,200 BC)

the first period of united Egyptian history, it was the era during which the Pyramids of Giza were constructed

14

The Middle Kingdom (2,100-1,650 BC)

a 2nd period of strong pharaohs in Egypt, it was during this time that the Grand Canal was dug

15

The New Kingdom (1,550-700 BC)

the 3rd and final era of strong pharaohs in Egypt, it saw the construction of massive public buildings and great cities; it was followed by centuries of decline which culminated in the Persian conquest of Egypt in 525 BC

16

Grand Canal

a canal that was dug between the Nile River and Red Sea during the time of the Middle Kingdom

17

Hyksos

a people south of the Egyptians who invaded Egypt c. 1,650 BC, in between the Middle and New Kingdoms; it literally means "shepherd king"

18

Akhenaton

an Egyptian pharaoh who tried to abolish the old, complex religion, and establish a new one that was centered on the pharaoh as god; he failed due to opposition from the Egyptian priesthood

19

hieroglyphics

the ancient Egyptian system of writing, it was based on the use of pictures of objects to represent the words they expressed

20

papyrus

a thin parchment made from reeds that grew along the banks of the Nile, it was what the ancient Egyptians wrote on

21

Rosetta Stone

found in 1798 AD by French soldiers serving under Napoleon in Egypt, this was a stone that had the same thing written in 3 different languages, one of which was Greek; since Greek is known, it allowed linguists to decipher the other two languages, which were Demotic and hieroglyphics

22

Jean Francois Champollion

a French linguist who in the 1820s used his knowledge of Greek to decipher the hieroglyphics of the Rosetta Stone

23

Queen Ahhotep

an Egyptian queen who helped to drive out the Hyksos

24

Hatshepsut

an Egyptian queen during the new kingdom who seized the throne while acting as regent for her stepson, the rightful heir; she is known for her promotion of trade

25

Harappa

along with Mohenjo Daro, this was one of the major urban complexes of the Harappan civilization; it was laid out on a planned grid pattern; had around 35,000 people

26

Khyber Pass

a opening through the Hindu Kush Mountains that allows easier access to the Indian subcontinent; it was used by both traders and invader throughout the years, such as the Aryans c. 1,500 BC

27

Vedas

hymns and chants of the ancient Indians that later became part of the Hindu religion

28

Mahayana Buddhism

a 2nd branch of Buddhism that spread through Vietnam, Korea, China, and Japan

29

Legalism

an early Chinese political philosophy that advised rule through an iron fist and suppression of dissent; it's central tenet was that allowing people freedom caused disorder

30

Shang Yang

the founder of Legalism in 350 BC, during the period of political chaos after the fall of the Zhou Dynasty