Chpt. 25, Global Independence Movements Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 25, Global Independence Movements Deck (82):

Congress Party (the Indian National Congress)

a Hindu-dominated party in India that claimed to represent all the people of India


Muslim League

an organization in India that was dedicated to the promotion of Muslim interests


Muhammad Ali Jinnah

the leader of the Muslim League, he had once been a member of the Congress Party; once he became the leader of the Muslim League, he proclaimed that he was against Indian independence if it meant rule by the Congress Party


the Great Calcutta Killing

a riot that took place between Muslims and Hindus in 1946, resulting in the deaths of about 6,000 people


Indian independence

on July 16, 1947, the British House of Commons partitioned the Indian subcontinent into two nations: India, primarily Hindu, and Pakistan, primarily Muslim; nonetheless, the killings continued because those who did not move to their allotted area were now minorities


Jawaharlal Nehru

the first prime minister of India, he was devoted to the economic modernization of his country, and led India to enlist the support of other newly independent nations in an alliance independent of either the US or the USSR


British Commonwealth

when they became independent, India and Pakistan became Dominion members in this, and adopted English as their official language


Indira Gandhi

this woman, Nehru's daughter, became prime minister of India upon Nehru's death; she faced problems such as overpopulation and conflict between religious groups; when she suspended the democratic process and imposed strict national birth control policies, she was voted out of office in 1977; she returned to power in 1980, but was killed by two of her Sikh bodyguards in 1984


green revolution

under Indira's rule, agricultural production increased after the implementation of this; wealthier farmers tended to reap the benefits while peasant farmers sank deeper into poverty


Rajiv Gandhi

Indira's son, he succeeded her in 1984; after his party was accused of corruption, he lost leadership of the Indian government in 1989; in 1991, he was killed with a terrorist bomb


Benazir Bhutto

the woman who served as prime minister of Pakistan after it's independence



Pakistan had been divided into East and West from it's independence, when East Pakistan broke off to form it's own nation, it referred to itself ad this


Benazir Bhutto

a politician and stateswoman who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Pakistan in two non-consecutive terms from November 1988 until October 1990, and 1993 until her final dismissal on November 1996


Nawaz Sharif

the ouster of Benazir Bhutto in Pakistan in 1997, he himself was ousted in a military coup later that year



while the majority of Sri Lanka's population are Buddhist, this is a Sri Lankan group of Hindus, some of whom desire an independent nation; throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the two religious groups were engaged in guerilla warfare


Indonesian independence

ethnically diverse, Indonesia became one of the world's most populous nations and the nation with the world's largest Islamic population; throughout their colonial rule in Indonesia, Dutch officials had prevented Indonesian higher education; during WW2, the Dutch system had been destroyed by Japanese occupation



an man who rose to lead the Indonesian independent movement and assembled a guerrilla army during the time of WW2; in 1949, the Dutch granted Indonesia it's independence; he failed in his attempt to create a parliamentary democracy



in 1965, this general put down a coup, only to subsequently seize power for himself; appointed president in 1967, he converted Indonesia into a police state characterized by bribery, corruption, discrimination against Chinese, and persecution against Christians


Bell Act

on July 4, 1946, the US granted independence to the Philippines, making it the first colony to achieve independence following WW2; this act, reluctantly approved by the Philippines, granted them war damages in exchange for the establishment of free trade between the Philippines and US for 8 years; after that period, tariffs gradually rose


Ferdinand Marcos

from 1966 to 1986, this was the president of the Philippines; his administration imposed authoritarian role and stole millions of dollars from the nation's treasury; from 1972 to 1981, he imposed martial law upon the Philippines


Benigno Aquino

the chief opponent of Marcos in the Philippines who was assassinated as he returned to the Philippines from a trip to the US


Corazon Aquino

the widow of Benigno Aquino; in the 1986 elections in the Philippines, she ran against Marcos and won, exiling him to Hawaii where he later died


Fidel Ramos

the successor to Corazon Aquino in 1992, his presidency was restricted to a single six-year term so that the abuses of the 20-year Marcos regime would never be repeated



the celebration of the black race and it's accomplishments


Kwame Nkrumah

the leader of the British-controlled Gold Coast in their independence efforts; he became it's first prime minister and later the president for life; he became involved in the Pan-African Congress, and founded his own group, the Organization of African Unity (OAU)


Marcus Garvey

the Jamaican-born instigator of a pan-African movement whose goal was the creation of an Africa ruled by Africans; he founded the Pan-African Congress in 1945


Nigerian independence

Nigeria gained it's independence from Great Britain in 1960; the most populous and prosperous country in Africa, it was also ethnically diverse, a situation that led to civil war; after the civil war, the Nigerians attempted to rebuild and modernize their country, becoming one of the world's largest oil producers and a member of OPEC; in 1983, the Hausa-Fulani staged a coup and formed a government that discriminated against other ethnic groups; in 1999, a new constitution was adopted, and civilian government was restored


Jomo Kenyatta

a British-educated Kenyan nationalist who worked for Kenyan independence from Great Britain, which was achieved in 1963; at this point, Kenyatta was elected as the first president


Mau Mau

a secret organization in Kenya that was composed primarily of Kikuyu farmers who had been driven off the good land by the British; they worked against the British


Daniel arap Moi

the man whose administration followed Kenyatta's death in 1978 he faced demonstrations in favor of a more democratic government; in 2002, free elections resulted in a new party gaining power


Patrice Lumumba

when the Belgian-controlled Congo received its independence in 1960, this person became it's first prime minister


Moise Tshombe

when the Congo received independence, this was a local leader who established leadersip over the southeastern province of Katanga, which was rich in copper mines; thus, the area was not unified


Joseph Mobutu

an army officer who led a coup against Lumumba and turned him over to Tshombe; since Lumumba had Marxist leanings, the US CIA was sympathetic with the coup; he changed the country's name to Zaire, and ruled as an authoritarian until 1997


Laurent Kabila

the ouster of Mobutu from power in the Congo in 1997, he initially ruled as an autocrat and promised free elections in 1999, but those never came; he changed the country's name from Zaire to the Democratic Republic of the Congo; in 1998, his government was attacked by Congolese rebels who were supported by the governments of Rwanda and Uganda


Hutu and Tutsi tribes

the ethnic conflict between these two tribes led to a mass genocide, and eventually involved most of Central Africa, coming to be known as Africa's first "world war"; in February 2000, the UN sent peacekeeping troops into the Congo, and a cease-fire was arranged


Algerian independence

since Algeria had thousands of French colonists who had lived there for decades, the French tried to mollify the Algerian desire for independence by claiming to offer full citizenship to subject peoples; conflicts between the French and Algerians escalated into a violent demonstration in 1945; in 1954, the FLN (Algerian National Liberation Front) declared it's goal of independence; this was finally granted in July 1962


Ahmed Ben Bella












south africa



south africa












African National Congress



Sharpeville Massacre



Nelson Mandela



Desmond Tutu



F.W. de Klerk



South Africa




a movement that advocated for the Jewish people to return to their holy land of Israel and establish a nation-state; it began in the 1890s; it began as a result of the history of persecution of the Jewish people


Theodor Herzl

a leader who began the Zionist movement in response to several anti-Semitic incidents


Alfred Dreyfus

a Jewish captain in the French army who was falsely accused of selling military secrets to Germany



violent Russian campaigns against Jewish settlements which prompted emigration from Russia to the US and other countries; it began under Soviet rule


Balfour Declaration

a statement issued by Great Britain in 1917 which favored the establishment of a separate homeland for the Jewish people in Palestine, but at the same time protected the rights of the non-Jews already living in Palestine; when it proved too vague to provide a workable solution to the claims of both Jews and Arabs to Palestine, the British made plans to divide Palestine



communal agricultural settlements that the Jews arriving in Palestine set up; many Arabs felt threatened by them


UN Palestine decision

at the conclusion of WW2, Great Britain submitted the issue of Palestine to the UN; over the objections of Palestinians and the Islamic world in general, Palestine was divided into a Jewish and Palestinian state; 55% of Palestine was granted to the Jews, although they constituted only 34% of the population, and Jerusalem was an international city controlled by neither side


David Ben Gurion

the leader of the newly formed state of Israel, which came into being on May 14, 1948


1948 Arab-Israeli War

the day after Israeli independence, the Arab states of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Lebanon invaded Israel; supported by the US, Israel won the war; further wars against Israel erupted in 1956, 1967, and 1973; in this war, Israel took half of the land promised to Palestine in the UN partition


West Bank

Jordan annexed this land during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War


Gaza Strip

Egypt annexed this land during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War


Gamal Abdel Nasser

in 1952, King Farouk of Egypt was overthrown by this man; adopting a neutral position in international politics, he initiated policies designed to modernize Egypt militarily and economically, with the goal of making it the leader of a pan-Arab movement


Suez Canal

French and British interests continued to control this until it was seized by Nasser in 1956


Aswan Dam

this was a dam that Nasser had wanted to build, but had lost the financial support of Britain and France; he planned to use revenue from the Suez Canal to continue building it; his plans were offset when the Israelis advanced toward the canal and routed the Egyptians, as the British and French provided air support; nonetheless, Israel withdrew and left the canal in Egyptian hands


Gulf of Aqaba

in 1967, another conflict arose when Nasser closed this off; it was Israel's only outlet to the Red Sea; convinced they were about to be attacked, the Israelis attacked airfields in Syria, Egypt, Iran, and Jordan; the war concluded in 6 days, with devastating loss of life for the Arabs (the Six-Day War)


Six-Day War

after this war, Israel occupied Jerusalem, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank, and the Golan Heights; the Palestinians living in Jerusalem were given a choice of Israeli or Jordanian citizenship, and those residing in other areas became stateless


Sinai Peninsula



Golan Heights



Anwar Sadat

Nasser's successor; in October 1973, he attacked the Israelis on Yom Kippur; caught by surprise, the Israelis lost some of their territory gained during the Six-Day War and also suffered severe casualties; this became known as the Yom Kippur War


Yom Kippur

the most sacred of Jewish holidays


Golda Meir

the Israeli prime minister who launched a counterattack to Sadat's Yom Kippur attack, regaining most of the territory that the Israelis had lost


Camp David Accords

in November 1977, Anwar Sadat made a peace initiative in which in exchange for his offer of peace, Israel would withdraw from the territory taken in 1967 from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria; the negotiations resulted in this, in which Egypt recognized the legitimacy of Israel and Israel agreed to return to the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt


Menachem Begin

the Israeli leader during the time of the Camp David Accords


Jimmy Carter

the US President who in 1978 offered to host the peace talks between Sadat and Begin


Hosni Mubarak

in 1981, Sadat was assassinated by extremists who opposed his capitulation to Israel, and was replaced by this man; this man pledged to continue the peace between Egypt and Israel


PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization)

in spite of the peace accords, the Israelis continued to build settlements in the occupied Palestinian lands along the West Bank and Gaza Strip; meanwhile, the Palestinians began to depend on the leadership of this organization


Yasir Arafat

the man who founded the PLO in 1964



a campaign of civil disobedience begun by the Palestinians in 1987 to make known their sentiments; a series of demonstrations, boycotts, and violent attacks, they attracted the attention of the world and pressured Israel to engage in peace talks in October 1991


Declaration of Principles

in 1993, secret talks in Oslo, Norway produced this document; according to it's provisions, Israel conceded to Palestinian self-rule in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank


Yitzhak Rabin

the Prime Minister of Israel in 1993, he signed the Declaration of Principles at the White House in September 1993; in 1995, he was assassinated by a Jewish extremist who opposed the provisions of the declaration


Benjamin Netanyahu

the successor to Rabin, he attempted to uphold the agreement; in 1997, Netanyahu and Arafat planned a partial Israeli withdrawal from Hebron on the West Bank; in 2005, Israel withdrew from the Gaza Strip, evacuating all Jewish settlements; in spite of the Declaration of Principles, violence between Arabs and Jews continues to the present