Chpt. 3, Hellenic and Hellenistic Cultures Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chpt. 3, Hellenic and Hellenistic Cultures Deck (27):
1

helots

the agricultural laborers who were ruled over by a warrior elite and composed 4/5 of Spartan people; in order to keep them in check when men were away in battle, even Spartan women were trained for war

2

Solon

one of the early Greek reformers, he established laws that prohibited enslavement for debt and allowed most citizens to vote

3

Draco

another Greek reformer, he imposed extremely stringent laws; that is why today, if a law is very strict, it is referred to as "draconian"

4

Cleisthenes

a Greek reformer who created an assembly of elected male citizens for the Greek people; his rule promoted equality before the law and freedom of speech, and he is known as the father of democracy

5

satraps

governor's of the provinces of the Persian Empire

6

King's Eyes and Ears

spies of the Persian Emperor who closely monitored the activities of the satraps; this was necessary because the empire was large and hard to control

7

Darius 1

the greatest of the Achaemenid (Persian) rulers, he ruled Persia at it's greatest extent, and introduced standard coinage and a standard calendar

8

Xerxes

Darius successor who moved against Greece c.
480 BC

9

Persian War

the war between Xerxes of Persia and the Greeks; although both sides had victories and the Persians at one point sacked the city of Athens, the Persians were unable to have a decisive victory against the Greek army, and since the war was very costly to them, they were forced to return unsuccessfully

10

Royal Road

a system of roads in the Persian Empire that was used by merchants and couriers (of mail); the couriers were known for their speed

11

Thermopylae

a narrow mountain pass in Greece; here the 200,000 strong Persian army was held off by 300 Spartan warriors, creating enough time for the Athenians and other fighters to get back to the defense of Greece

12

Delian League

a union between Athens and neighboring poleis originally intended to take back certain territories from Persia; after this was accomplished, Athens used it for their own economic development

13

Peloponnesian League

a league formed between Sparta and it's allies in response to the growing power of the Athenian sea empire

14

Peloponnesian War

a war that broke out between the Delian and Peloponnesian Leagues, eventually the Spartans beat Athens, but overall this war led to the degradation of Greek power, and it's ability to defend itself

15

Oracle at Delphi

a well-known Greek oracle, or divine prophet

16

Greek intellectualism

their emphasis on order and reason led them to many intellectual achievements, such as the development of theories of the motion of planets, the classification of elemental principles (fire, iair, water, earth), and mathematical theories such as the Pythagorean theorem, formulated by Pythagorus (500s B.C)

17

Greek drama

this included tragedy and comedy; like Shakespearian drama, tragedies involved a great character with a tragic flaw, oftentimes hubris (pride)

18

Greek art

the Greeks had great art, which focused on the golden mean (the concept of avoiding extremes in proportions); this concept of the golden mean was applied by the Greeks to life as well

19

Greek architecture

this was the best in the world at the time, and most of it (in fact most of their accomplishments in general) was created in Athens when they prospered through economic control of the Delian League

20

Parthenon

a fine example of Greek architecture; a temple to Athena (her statue is now missing, but the rest remains), it sits atop the Acropolis of Athens

21

Philip 2 of Macedon

the ruler of Macedon to the north of Greece; after the Peloponnesian War when Greece was weak, he took it over, and died unexpectedly soon after

22

Alexander the Great

the son of Philip 2, he was well educated, and had been personally tutored by Aristotle; he continued his father's conquest, taking over the entire Persian Empire as well as parts of Asia

23

Hellenic culture

Greek culture

24

Hellenistic culture

the blending of Greek, Egyptian, Indian, and Persian culture that resulted from the brief unification of these areas by Alexander; under his encouragement, intellectual culture flourished to a much greater degree than it had during the Persian Empire; it was centered on the city of Alexandria, Egypt

25

Aristarchus and Ptolemy

two Hellenistic astronomers who argued about the motion of the planets; the first person in history to propose that the earth revolved around the sun (the heliocentric theory) was Aristarchus, while Ptolemy believed that the planets revolved around the earth (geocentric theory)

26

the 3 main eastern philosophies in the Hellenistic system

Cynicism, Stoicism, and Epicureanism

27

Euclid

an Egyptian Greek in the 3rd century BC who wrote "Elements of Geometry," considered the most significant mathematical argument ever written