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1

Why should you focus on outcomes in the clinic?

-Dx underlying pathology
-objective results
-efficacy of current exercise and PT prescription
-Evidence for future exercise prescription

2

What are some field measurements?

6MWT
MMT
Antrhopometrics
Metabolic Equation
Resting BP/HR
Spiromety

3

What are some research measurements?

-6MWT O2 consumption
-MMT dynamometry
-DXA/MRI/CT
-Indirect alimotry
-GXT
-Body Plethysmography

4

Field Vs Advanced clinical tests

Indirect vs. Direct
Subjective vs. objective
Cost effective vs. expensive
Surrogate vs. Gold standard

5

What does the Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA)do?

measure lean, fat, and bone tissue mass

6

What was DXA originally developed for?

to measure areal bone mineral density (aBMD)

7

Units for Bone mineral Density

g/cm^2

8

How does DXA calculate weights of each area?

using attenuation coefficient.

9

pQCT

Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography

10

what does pQCT measure?

it assesses Volumetric BMD

11

how does pQCT differ from DXA?

measures geometry and microarchitecture

12

Osteoporosis T score?

>-2.5 SD
post-menopause + >50 y/o

13

Osteoporosis Z score?

>-2.0 SD
Premenopause
Men <50

14

Where does lipid overflow?

Visceral
liver
epicardium
pericardium
Myocardium
Intramuscular
Renal Sinus
Pancreas

15

What happens with insulin overflow?

Insulin Resistance, inflammation, and Impaired insulin secretion

16

What is the effect of resistance training on energy expidenture?

Increases total energy expidentur (TEE)

17

Direct Calorimetry measures what?

Resting Energy Expidenture (REE)

a subjects heat production via change in water temp in chamber

18

What is anaerobic threshold?

The highest oxygen uptake attained without sustained increase in blood lactate

19

When does anaerobic threshold occur?

when O2 required by muscles cannot be totally supported by O2 delivery system.

20

What feeds the energy demands during anaerobic threshold?

supplemented by Anaerobic glycolysis and lactate production.

21

Anaerobic threshold is correlated closely with

VO2 threshold.

(VCO2>VO2)

22

Subjective vs. objective test example

MMT, 40, plyos

vs. MMT with dynamometry
and isokinetic dynamometry