Flashcards in Christianity Deck (74):
What was the common language of the Roman Empire during the beginning of Christianity?
What was the major religious affiliation of the roman empire around the beginning of Christianity?
There was no major religious affiliation. Rise in cults.
What was the climate like around the time that Christianity came into being?
There was a feeling that end times were near
emphasis on following only the Torah, remained loyal to the temple and Rome
advocated innovations in interpretation of the Torah, represented the piety of the common Jew
emphasis on purity, both ritual and physical
actively opposed Roman rule of Judea, revolted
Christ is a Greek word meaning what?
"The Annointed One"
*This concept in Hebrew is similar to Messiah
What does the Gospel mean?
The Good News
Where did Jesus begin his ministry?
How long was Jesus' ministry?
three to four years
Where was Jesus born?
He was born in Nazareth during the Roman occupation of Judea
How big was Jesus' hometown of Nazareth?
Population of 1,600
After Jesus is born in Bethleham, almost nothing is heard of him until he is Baptized by _____ some 30 years later
John the Baptist
Who was Jesus critical of?
Those who claimed to be "most pious"
Who did Jesus have concern for?
"The last, the least, and the lost"
What miracles did Jesus perform?
healing the sick, raising Lazarus from the dead
What was Jesus' teaching style?
He spoke in Parables, or stories in terms familiar to peasants, etc.
What are the three aspects of the Kingdom of God?
Internal emphasis on Jewish Laws
Spirit of the Laws
How many apostles did Jesus have?
He trained 12 Apostles to convey his teachings on a wider scale
What was the movement of Christianity known as?
It was known as "The way"
Volunteered to go to Damascus and find members of “the Way” and arrest them
Saul of Tarsus ("Paul")
What was Paul's initial goal?
To eliminate the Christian influence within Judaism
What caused Saul to convert to Christianity?
He was struck blind on his way to Damascus. Heard a voice that led him there. Changed his name to Paul to signify his commitment.
Persecution of Christians by Jews continued for hundreds of years (True/False)
What did Paul do after he converted to Christianity?
He worked as a missionary in order to spread Christianity. Traverses the roads of N. Africa. Writes a lot of letters (Epistles), that end up being a major part of the New Testament.
How does Paul change Christianity?
He allows gentiles to become Christians simply by becoming baptized (they do not have to convert to Judaism first). Also, they do not have to follow strict Kosher laws or circumcision.
(True/False) Paul never walked with Jesus of Nazareth.
What do scholars believe about Paul now?
Some scholars now believe, was more instrumental in the founding of Christianity than anyone else-even Jesus himself!!!
What happened to Paul during his own lifetime?
In his own time, he was reviled by religious and political adversaries and arrested, beaten, exiled, and eventually executed for his zealous preaching in the Roman precincts of the Mediterranean rim.
When did Constantine rule the Roman Empire?
From 306-337 CE
Who was the leader when Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire?
Seen as the new Covenant (berith) with God (replaces the one with Moses)
What does the new testament center on?
It centers on Jesus as the son of God
What were the earliest writings of the New Testament?
The first few centuries of the ____ are pivotal in the writings of the New Testament.
What is part 1 of the New Testament?
What is part 2 of the New Testament?
What is part 3 of the New Testament?
What did part one of the New Testament consist of?
The Gospels, stories that focus on the life and death of Jesus
The Gospels is translated from the Greek word "Evangelical", which translates to:
Good message, good news, or good proclamation
What is the order of the Gospels?
-Accounts of the life of Jesus
When were the Gospels composed?
Most scholars put their composition around 70-90 CE
The look-alike Gospels…” “Those Gospels that see the life and teachings of Jesus in the same way”
-Mark, Matthew, and Luke (John is a little different)
What does the second part of the New Testament consist of?
14 letters of the Apostle Paul, in order of length
one who is sent out.” A personal messenger or envoy commissioned to transmit a message or otherwise carry out instructions.
What represents the largest amount of material in the New Testament?
What were Paul's letters referred to?
The Pastoral Letters
What did the New Testament, Part 3, consist of?
Catholic Epistles = James, I Peter,
II Peter, I John, II John, III John, Jude
Catholic = “Universal” or “for everyone”
General letters circulating in the early church and meant for everyone.
Apocalypse = Revelation
Was the early Christian message uniform?
No, it was mixed. People got mixed ideas about what Christianity was about because it was not cohesive.
When did Gnosticism arise?
During an early period of Christianity
mean “Shepherd” or even more-so “overseer.” So that is a kind of authoritative word.
means elder. Originally it mean an older member of a group.
are the assistants to the elders. literary means a “waiter.” Someone who waits on the tables, a servant. Someone who serves in the house, does the dishes, puts out the food, serves other people
What were the two basic concepts that Gnostics embraced?
1. They divided the world into opposing forces of good and evil
2. they believed that they had access to secret knowledge
What do we know about the Gnostic writings that survived?
combined Oriental mysticism, magic, astrology, and incipient Jewish Kabbalah in a base of Christian belief…
What was weird about the Gnostics?
They believed in incorporating Zoroastrianism and Christianity together in a way that was weird to the general Christian population
*Tried to found the Kabbalah in Christian belief
What was Augustine's time period?
Who became the Bishop of Hippo in North Africa?
Wrote Confessions and City of God
What were the most influential ideas of Augustine?
The doctrines of original sin. Adam and Eve and the garden of Eden. They chose to disobey God and thus created an environment where the rest of humanity is sinful.
*The idea of the fall of man and predestination
When was the Great Schism?
After the Great Schism, what did the West emphasize?
the humanity of Jesus
After the Great Schism, what did the East emphasize?
the divine nature of Jesus
What did the Western branch of Christiandom become?
Roman Catholic Church
What did the Eastern branch of Christianbom become?
Eastern Orthodox Church
Meant to settle theological differences after the Great Schism
Council of Nicea
When did the Papacy develop?
In the period of time between Augustine and Medieval Christianity
Papacy- who should be in power?
Descendents of Peter
What is Thomas Aquinas famous for?
His famous work, Summa Theological, he reiterated that both faith and reason can lead to truth... he argues that the existence of God can be by reason, apart from revelation
*Faith and reason support each other
What did Martin Luther do for Christianity?
Challenged the authority of the papacy by holding that the bible is the only infallible source of religious authority and that all Christians baptized under Jesus are a spiritual priesthood.
*His ideas led to the Protestant Reformation
When was the Protestant Reformation?
During the 16th century