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Flashcards in Christianity Deck (74):
1

What was the common language of the Roman Empire during the beginning of Christianity?

Greek

2

What was the major religious affiliation of the roman empire around the beginning of Christianity?

There was no major religious affiliation. Rise in cults.

3

What was the climate like around the time that Christianity came into being?

There was a feeling that end times were near

4

emphasis on following only the Torah, remained loyal to the temple and Rome

Sadducees

5

advocated innovations in interpretation of the Torah, represented the piety of the common Jew

Pharisees

6

emphasis on purity, both ritual and physical

Essenes

7

actively opposed Roman rule of Judea, revolted

Zealots

8

Christ is a Greek word meaning what?

"The Annointed One"

*This concept in Hebrew is similar to Messiah

9

What does the Gospel mean?

The Good News

10

Where did Jesus begin his ministry?

In Galilee

11

How long was Jesus' ministry?

three to four years

12

Where was Jesus born?

He was born in Nazareth during the Roman occupation of Judea

13

How big was Jesus' hometown of Nazareth?

Population of 1,600

14

After Jesus is born in Bethleham, almost nothing is heard of him until he is Baptized by _____ some 30 years later

John the Baptist

15

Who was Jesus critical of?

Those who claimed to be "most pious"

16

Who did Jesus have concern for?

"The last, the least, and the lost"

17

What miracles did Jesus perform?

healing the sick, raising Lazarus from the dead

18

What was Jesus' teaching style?

He spoke in Parables, or stories in terms familiar to peasants, etc.

19

What are the three aspects of the Kingdom of God?

a) Political
b) Mystical
c) Apocalyptic

20

Internal emphasis on Jewish Laws

Spirit of the Laws

21

How many apostles did Jesus have?

He trained 12 Apostles to convey his teachings on a wider scale

22

What was the movement of Christianity known as?

It was known as "The way"

23

Volunteered to go to Damascus and find members of “the Way” and arrest them

Saul of Tarsus ("Paul")

24

What was Paul's initial goal?

To eliminate the Christian influence within Judaism

25

What caused Saul to convert to Christianity?

He was struck blind on his way to Damascus. Heard a voice that led him there. Changed his name to Paul to signify his commitment.

26

Persecution of Christians by Jews continued for hundreds of years (True/False)

True

27

What did Paul do after he converted to Christianity?

He worked as a missionary in order to spread Christianity. Traverses the roads of N. Africa. Writes a lot of letters (Epistles), that end up being a major part of the New Testament.

28

How does Paul change Christianity?

He allows gentiles to become Christians simply by becoming baptized (they do not have to convert to Judaism first). Also, they do not have to follow strict Kosher laws or circumcision.

29

(True/False) Paul never walked with Jesus of Nazareth.

True

30

What do scholars believe about Paul now?

Some scholars now believe, was more instrumental in the founding of Christianity than anyone else-even Jesus himself!!!

31

What happened to Paul during his own lifetime?

In his own time, he was reviled by religious and political adversaries and arrested, beaten, exiled, and eventually executed for his zealous preaching in the Roman precincts of the Mediterranean rim.

32

When did Constantine rule the Roman Empire?

From 306-337 CE

33

Who was the leader when Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire?

Constantine

34

Seen as the new Covenant (berith) with God (replaces the one with Moses)

New Testament

35

What does the new testament center on?

It centers on Jesus as the son of God

36

What were the earliest writings of the New Testament?

Paul's Epistles

37

The first few centuries of the ____ are pivotal in the writings of the New Testament.

common era

38

What is part 1 of the New Testament?

-The Gospels
-Luke-Acts

39

What is part 2 of the New Testament?

-The Apostle
-Pastorals

40

What is part 3 of the New Testament?

Miscellaneous writings

41

What did part one of the New Testament consist of?

The Gospels, stories that focus on the life and death of Jesus

42

The Gospels is translated from the Greek word "Evangelical", which translates to:

Good message, good news, or good proclamation

43

What is the order of the Gospels?

-Accounts of the life of Jesus
-Matthew
-Mark
-Luke
-John

44

When were the Gospels composed?

Most scholars put their composition around 70-90 CE

45

The look-alike Gospels…” “Those Gospels that see the life and teachings of Jesus in the same way”

-Mark, Matthew, and Luke (John is a little different)

Synoptic Gospels

46

What does the second part of the New Testament consist of?

14 letters of the Apostle Paul, in order of length

47

one who is sent out.” A personal messenger or envoy commissioned to transmit a message or otherwise carry out instructions.

Apostle

48

What represents the largest amount of material in the New Testament?

The Gospels

49

What were Paul's letters referred to?

The Pastoral Letters

50

What did the New Testament, Part 3, consist of?

Catholic Epistles = James, I Peter,
II Peter, I John, II John, III John, Jude

Catholic = “Universal” or “for everyone”
General letters circulating in the early church and meant for everyone.

Apocalypse = Revelation

51

Was the early Christian message uniform?

No, it was mixed. People got mixed ideas about what Christianity was about because it was not cohesive.

52

When did Gnosticism arise?

During an early period of Christianity

53

mean “Shepherd” or even more-so “overseer.” So that is a kind of authoritative word.

Episcopos

54

means elder. Originally it mean an older member of a group.

Presbyter

55

are the assistants to the elders. literary means a “waiter.” Someone who waits on the tables, a servant. Someone who serves in the house, does the dishes, puts out the food, serves other people

Diaconos

56

What were the two basic concepts that Gnostics embraced?

1. They divided the world into opposing forces of good and evil

2. they believed that they had access to secret knowledge

57

What do we know about the Gnostic writings that survived?

combined Oriental mysticism, magic, astrology, and incipient Jewish Kabbalah in a base of Christian belief…

58

What was weird about the Gnostics?

They believed in incorporating Zoroastrianism and Christianity together in a way that was weird to the general Christian population

*Tried to found the Kabbalah in Christian belief

59

What was Augustine's time period?

354-430 CE

60

Who became the Bishop of Hippo in North Africa?

Augustine

61

Wrote Confessions and City of God

Augustine

62

What were the most influential ideas of Augustine?

The doctrines of original sin. Adam and Eve and the garden of Eden. They chose to disobey God and thus created an environment where the rest of humanity is sinful.

*The idea of the fall of man and predestination

63

When was the Great Schism?

1054

64

After the Great Schism, what did the West emphasize?

the humanity of Jesus

65

After the Great Schism, what did the East emphasize?

the divine nature of Jesus

66

What did the Western branch of Christiandom become?

Roman Catholic Church

67

What did the Eastern branch of Christianbom become?

Eastern Orthodox Church

68

Meant to settle theological differences after the Great Schism

Council of Nicea

69

When did the Papacy develop?

In the period of time between Augustine and Medieval Christianity

70

Papacy- who should be in power?

Descendents of Peter

71

What is Thomas Aquinas famous for?

His famous work, Summa Theological, he reiterated that both faith and reason can lead to truth... he argues that the existence of God can be by reason, apart from revelation

*Faith and reason support each other

72

What did Martin Luther do for Christianity?

Challenged the authority of the papacy by holding that the bible is the only infallible source of religious authority and that all Christians baptized under Jesus are a spiritual priesthood.

*His ideas led to the Protestant Reformation

73

When was the Protestant Reformation?

During the 16th century

74

What was the Council of Trent?

Council meets to discuss challenge of Protestant Reformation to the Catholic Church. Also want to form counter-reformation. Crystalized the ideas of the Protestant Reformation vs. Catholic Church.

*Reaffirms existence of 7 sacraments, necessity of the priesthood, etc. Catholicism emphasizes not only faith, but also what you do.