Flashcards in Judaism Deck (75):
What is the most common prayer in Judaism?
Shema, from Deuteronomy 6:4-9; to be said twice daily
How do you define Judaism?
What is the unifying feature of Judaism?
The unifying characteristics of all Jews is a belief in the oneness of God who works in and through historical events and who in some manner has chosen the Jewish people as agents.
Who is the father of the Jewish nation?
When did Abraham live?
Between 2000 and 1600 BCE
What was Abraham before God appeared to him?
He was an Armean shepherd and Herdsman from the Fertile Crescent
Where is Abraham's story first recounted?
Abraham and his descendants form a covenant with God, known as _____.
Saddai (God of the Mountain)
Who were the sons of Abraham?
Isaac and Ishmael
The binding agreement between God and his chosen people. The covenant was repeatedly renewed.
*Unlike a contract, a covenant does not have an expiration date
The covenant is not a bargain, but a _____
What is the covenant between God and Abraham?
If Abraham is faithful to God, then God promises him the land of Canan (Israel)
*tells Abraham he will be the father of a great and numerous nation
Why did Jews do animal sacrifices?
they were acts of worship, often sealed covenants
Who is the one God for Judaism?
El, El Shaddai
What are the three names for God in the Hebrew Bible?
El Shaddai (God of the Mountains)
El Elyon (God Most High)
El Olam (God Everlasting)
2. Yahweh- Personal name revealed to Moses on Mt. Sinai
3. Adonai- "Lord/Sir", Honorific, used as replacement/protective name for God
After the death of Joseph, a new Egyptian Pharaoh enslaved the ______.
When did Isaac and his sons move to Egypt?
During a time of famine in Cannan.
When did Moses arrive?
During the time of enslavement of Israelites
How many sons did Isaac have?
Who was the favored son of Isaac?
*Became the viceroy of Egypt
Who were Moses' parents?
He was born to Hebrew slaves.
Who raised Moses?
He was raised by the Pharoh's daughter in the Pharoh's (Rames 2) court
Why was Moses cast out?
Because he killed an Egyptian that was harassing a Hebrew
How does God assist Moses in freeing the Hebrew people?
He provides the 10 plagues of Egypt. The pharaoh finally lets them go, but after he does, he changes his mind.
What is the parting of the Red Sea?
The Pharaoh of Egypt decided to let the Hebrew people go, but then changed his mind.
Where do the Hebrews go once they escape the Egyptian Pharaoh?
They go to Mt. Sinai, where God's covenant with his people is formed.
A wooden chest containing the stone tablets bearing the Ten Commandments
The Arc of the Covenant
*priests carried the Ark in processions, it was said to first be housed in the Tabernacle and then eventually housed in the Temple
What are the ten commandments?
1. I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out the house of Bondage. You shall have no other gods before me.
2. You shall not make any graven image.
3. You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain.
4. Remember the Sabbath day, keep it holy.
5. Honor your father and your mother.
6. You shall not kill.
7. You shall not commit adultery.
8. You shall not steal.
9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
10. You shall not covet your neighbor’s property.
When the Hebrews left Mt. Sinai, where did they go?
They went to Canaan, where the Canonites were not exactly welcoming. They settled into tribal life organized around the 12 decedents of the children of Israel.
Who was King of the Israelites?
Who won the battle for Jerusalem?
Who was King David's son?
What did David want to do?
He wanted to build a great Temple. God did not want him to. But, he was very prosperous.
Who built the first Jewish Temple and when did he built it?
David's son Soloman built the first Jewish Temple, in 900s BCE
What happened to the Jews under Soloman?
The Jews reached the height of their political and economic power.
A person inspired by God to speak in his name. In Hebrew history, prophets in groups gave way to the messages of individual prophets such as Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel.
What caused the split of Israel?
The taxes imposed by Soloman in order to build his Temple
What were the two divisions of Israel after the split?
1. Northern Kingdom of Israel
2. Southern Kingdom of Judah
What happened to the Northern Kingdom of Israel?
First defeated by the Assyrians in 721 BCE
What happened to the Southern Kingdom of Judah?
Defeated by the Babylonians in 597 BCE
*Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem
Hebrews, now part of Babylon, were approached by ____, who said that God was available in Babylon, just like in Jerusalem
Initially, YHWH was only considered the god of the Jews until _____ proclaims that he is the one true God, presenting YHWH’s message to the world (God of the world)
___ is called man of the book.
*God spoke through the book rather than through his prophets
With the help of the Romans, ______ regains Judea and names himself king
Who built the second temple?
Herod built the second temple, in 34-37 BCE--> 70 CE, even more magnificent
After the death of Herod, what divides the Jewish people?
Herod's three sons
When did the Jews rebel against Roman rule?
66-70 CE. The second Temple, and much of Jerusalem were destroyed, and never rebuilt.
What does Synagogue translate to?
It means "assembly", and it can exist wherever there is scripture (Torah) and whenever there are 10 adult males to form a quorum (minyan)
What did Roman destruction of Israel result in?
Roman destruction of Israel caused Hebrews to create a “mobile” religion, Hebrews spread all around
What does Rabbi mean?
"My master" "Teacher"
Those who wanted to help their community and teach
*Not necessarily closer to God, just wanted to help
Interpretation of the scripture for the world they lived in
A justification, in the presence of evil, of God’s goodness, justice, and knowledge. How can an all-good, all-powerful, all-knowing God allow evil?
What problems did Rabbis run into when they began looking at scriptures?
Rabbis ran into problems of interpreting the scriptures literally, for a very different world
During the diaspora, what were distinguishing qualities that kept Jews separate from non-Israelites?
Christianity began as a sect of ____.
Who invited non-Jews into Christianity?
Peter and Paul
*They did not have to follow the strict laws that Jews were forced to follow
Jews refused to accept _____ as the Messiah.
What did Christians blame Jews for?
The death of Jesus. "You threw him to the Romans".
The concern for angels, demons, magical incantations, charms, witches, ghouls, interpretation of dreams, the date of the coming Messiah, numerology, and the name of God
What form of Judaism is occult and esoteric
What is the goal of Kaballah?
Mystical union with God
compilation of Kabbalahlistic material
There is a lot more evidence for Kaballah during what times?
During times of exile and persecution
What are the festivals and holy days in Judaism?
The Feast of Weeks (Shavuot)
New Year (Rosh Hashanah)
The Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur)
The Feast of Tabernacles (Sukkot)
The Feast of Dedication (Chanukah)
The Feast of Lots (Purim)
The Son of the Commandment (Bar Mitzvah)
Spirit would pass over and kill the first born son of people who did not do a certain ritual (eat something and put lamb blood on their doorsteps)
Day of Introspection
Inspired by David Einhorn, Isaac Mayer Wise in the United States, Torah is binding in its moral teachings rather than diet, ceremonial purity, and dress.
Torah and Talmud must be followed, worship services in Hebrew, members encouraged to observe Kosher law
retains as much as possible for the Torah and Talmud, other forms not seen as fully legitimate
Orthadox Judaism (the most strict)
“pious ones” those of the modern world devoted to the Torah and to pure lives. Judaism in the most ancient form possible, the world is hallowed
movement in the late 19th century to establish a Jewish Homeland
Is there a heavy emphasis on life after death in Judaism?
No, the emphasis in Judaism is on life.
*The idea is that you should not worry about what comes after life, because God will take care of you. No matter what happens, you know you will be okay.
Body is just hanging out, then it dissipates.